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The dwarf-male-sterile wheat is unique to China and has been improved by introducing good germplasm. In order to clear the subunits background of Dwarf-Male-Sterile wheat, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to detect the high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) compositions in BC1F1, F2 and F3 generations from Dwarf-Male-Sterile wheat. Twenty-five alleles and 49 HMW-GS compositions at the Glu-1 loci were detected in different generations. Null and subunit 1 were mainly existed at Glu-A1 , and 7 + 8 and 7 + 9 were primarily detected at Glu-B1 in different generations. Subunit combination 5 + 10 mainly appeared in BC1F1, while 2 + 12 major presented in F2 and F3 generations. HMW-GS compositions null, 7 + 8, 5 + 10 and null, 7 + 9, 5 + 10 showed higher frequencies than other banding patterns, followed by null, 14 + 15, 5 + 10 and null, 7 + 9, 2 + 12 combinations. In addition, some rare subunit combinations such as 14 + 15, 13 + 16, 17 + 18, 4 + 12, 2 + 10 and 5 + 12 were found in different generations. Eighteen alleles and 51 LMW-GS compositions at Glu-3 loci were found in different generations. Glu-A3 a and Glu-B3 d showed higher frequencies than others among three generations. There were mainly a, b, c alleles at Glu-D3 . Thirty, 31 and 14 different combinations were detected in BC1F1, F2 and F3 populations, respectively. There were some good combinations such as A3 d/ B3 h, A3 d/ B3 d/ D3 a, A3 b/ B3 b/ D3 a, A3 a/ B3 d/ D3 a for different quality characteristics. So some desirable subunit combinations could be selected from different generations and new cultivars with good quality under distinct subunits background should be bred from Dwarf-Male-Sterile wheat in future.

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The present research endeavor was undertaken to depict the response of different generations viz., F1, F2, BC1F1, BC1F2, BC1F3, BC1F4 and BC1F5 of triticale × wheat and wheat × rye hybrids towards the different parameters of haploid induction. The experimental material included the different generations obtained utilizing five genotypes of triticale (DT-123, DT-126, TL-2900, TL-2908 and TL-9335), four genotypes of Himalayan rye (Karoki rye, shanoor rye, tino rye and triloki rye) with various elite bread wheat genotypes as parents in wide hybridization programme. The triticale × wheat and wheat × rye recombinants were further subjected to Imperata cylindrica-mediated chromosome elimination approach of doubled haploidy breeding. The variability in the haploid induction parameters was observed to be under genetic control for embryo formation and regeneration, while pseudoseed formation was only affected by auxin treatment. Among the different generations, the backcross generations viz., BC1F1 and BC1F2 were found to exhibit significant positive response towards haploid induction parameters in both triticale × wheat and wheat × rye hybridization. Knowledge of effective generation for haploid induction in triticale × wheat and wheat × rye hybridization not only saved the time and energy but also enhanced the efficiency of haploid induction.

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The paper examines the French-Algerian relationship through the subjects of immigration and emigration. This historical analysis focuses on 20th-century Algerian emigration with a special regard to the great wave of emigration that followed the Algerian war (1954–1962). The first part of the article presents contemporary Algerian industry, culture and social life. The multifaceted picture of 21st-century Algeria raises further issues. I try to find answers by giving a historical overview. The second part focuses on France and the life of different generations of Algerian immigrants in the country. I will consider the Parisian example that opened the wave of change of social life into intercultural society. The main objective of this article is to encourage the revaluation of the antagonistic political relationship between Algeria and France and to offer a new possibility to overcome the hostility caused by the recollection of the war.

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Abstract  

“Collective memory” emerged as an object of scholarly inquiry only in the early twentieth century. The scholarly boom began in the 1980s with two literary events: Yosef Yerushalmi’s Zakhor: Jewish History and Jewish Memory and Pierre Nora’s introduction “Between Memory and History”. Each of these texts identified memory as a primitive or sacred form opposed to modern historical consciousness. In recent years, scholarly attention has been shifting to the cultural processes. It has become increasingly apparent that the memories that are shared within generations and across different generations are the product of public acts of remembrance. In this essay, the author attempts to distinguish four layers of cultural identities in the 150-year-old history of China since 1840, by having recourse to the transformation processes of the Western material and cosmological beliefs, with two central questions in mind: (1) how are these layers transmitted or preserved? (2) To what extent have they been accepted in that time society?

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Although significant progress has been made on Agrobacterium -mediated wheat transformation, the current methodologies use immature embryos as recipient tissues, a process which is labor intensive, time consuming and expensive. In this study, we have managed to develop an Agrobacterium -based transformation scheme using explants derived from mature embryos. Based on transient expression of β -glucuronidase (GUS) marker, mature embryo halves prepared from freshly imbibed seeds were generally most susceptible to Agrobacterium -mediated T-DNA transfer. According to the results of callus induction and shoot production, Yumai 66 and Lunxuan 208 showed higher selection and regeneration efficiency than Bobwhite. In line with this finding, fertile T 0 transgenic plants were most readily obtained for both spring and winter wheat when mature embryo halves were used for co-inoculation by Agrobacterium cells. The presence of the antibiotic selection marker ( nptII , encoding neomycin phosphotransferase II) in the T 0 plants was revealed by both genomic PCR amplification and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additional analysis showed that the transgene was stably inherited from the two different generations and segregated normally among the T 1 progenies. Further development along this line will raise the efficiency of wheat transformation and increase the use of this approach in the molecular breeding of wheat crop.

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Summary  

The present essay is devoted to the various manifestations of transformation in Slavic literatures after 1989, when 300 million Slavs found themselves in the cultural paradigm diametrically opposed to the communist one, but not quite what it was designed to be by the dissidents and opposition members, i.e. advocates of civil society. This comparative panorama of Slavic literatures is presented from the perspective of postmodern culture and philosophy (Lyotard, Bauman, Rorty, Prigogine, Foucault, Derrida among others), legitimizing with its theories pluralism, the understanding of the multi-meaning nature of truth, the polyphony of cultures, and the significance of all minorities for the spiritual development of humankind. On the basis of selected examples from the literatures of West-, East- and South-Slavic countries, the author attempts to identify the crucial elements of transformation of the social and literary self-awareness of different generations in the post-communist Slavic countries over the last fifteen years. In the works of J. Topol, V. Pelevin, T. Rżewicz, D. Ugresić, T. Zabuzhko, or D. Bieńkowski she seeks an answer to the question what was realized out of various dreams of a better and braver world of pluralism and democracy. How do the transformationers, the transformed and the self-transforming “inhabitants” of the new reality recognize their social and ethical situation? Who are, in light of literature, the heroes of our time, and what is behind the notion of “new sensitivity”? What does the so-called “realcap” (real capitalism) mean in literature? And also, which spaces of freedom does the democratic system open for writers and minorities, and which new worlds of imagination does it create in a search for metaphysical, mythical, thanatological, religious and esoteric dimensions of human existence, constrained in the past by imposed, top-down atheism.

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. M. and Budashkina, E. B. (1990): The level and peculiarities of introgression in different generations of three Triticum aestivum x T. timopheevii hybrid populations. In: Characterization of genomes of some agricultural plants, Novosibirsk, pp. 130

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methodology applied in this book to reach women’s voices. The book deals with a study across different generations and disciplines on gender and justice, which reveals the long-standing injustices and undemocratic attitudes that women face, by voicing

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kapcsolatok neuropszichológiája . Budapest : Medicina Könyvkiadó Zrt. Karsten , L. ( 2005 ). It all used to be better? Different generations on continuity and change in urban

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. Tripathi , V. , Tripathi , P. , Srivastava , N. , Gupta , D. : In silico analysis of different generation

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