Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for :

  • "disease index" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Spot blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is worldwide and economically one of the most important diseases. The structure of the B. sorokiniana population is not uniform. Within isolates of this species, there are strains that differ in virulence and aggressiveness. The aim of the study was to determine the variability of virulence within Polish isolates of B. sorokiniana and to test selected strains of this fungus terms of their pathogenicity in relation to different spring barley cultivars. The diversity of 70 Polish isolates of B. sorokiniana was determined based on the reaction of three spring barley test lines – Bowman, ND5883 and NDB12 with a certain susceptibility to infection by this pathogen and compared to three isolates of B. sorokiniana: ND93-1 classified to pathotype 0, ND85F – pathotype 1 and ND90Pr – pathotype 2. In the population of 70 isolates of B. sorokiniana, two pathotypes – 0 (14 isolates) and 1 (56 isolates) were identified. The mean values of leaf infection index evaluated for lines – Bowman, ND5883 and NDB12 in the case of B. sorokiniana isolates of pathotype 0 ranged: 17.08, 25.42 and 18.13, respectively, and in the case of B. sorokiniana isolates of pathotype 1: 15.57, 59.81 and 17.98, respectively. In the second experiment, the susceptibility of 8 spring barley cultivars to leaf infection by 10 selected isolates of B. sorokiniana (5 of pathotype 0 and 5 of pathotype 1) was tested. The mean value of leaf infection index calculated for analyzed cultivars in experimental combination with pathotype 0 isolates of B. sorokiniana was 1.56, and in the case of isolates of pathotype 1 was 16.58.

Restricted access

regulated at 20°C day/night temperature and 16/8 h light/dark in order to measure disease development rates and disease index (DI) as indicators of the isolate’s pathogenicity. FHB incidence (% of symptomatic spikes) was estimated as the percentage of spikes

Restricted access

Bipolaris sorokiniana causes spot blotch, an important disease of wheat in Asia and America. To understand the host response to challenge by B. sorokiniana, we calculated the plant disease index (PDI) of twelve popular wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes and examined the expression levels of PR protein genes and wax synthesizing genes on an inoculation time-course using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gene expression was studied in a resistant (R) and a highly susceptible (HS) genotype selected from a PDI experiment under glasshouse conditions. A gene (β-1,3-glucanase II) was induced at 24 h post inoculation and to higher levels in the resistant genotype Chiriya-3 (PDI = 1.3) than in the highly susceptible genotype Agra Local (PDI = 40.1). Densitometry analysis showed that expression of an Actin gene was the same at all stages of inoculation due to its constitutive expression in both the resistant and susceptible genotypes, while a 7-fold increase in expression of β-1,3-glucanase II was observed 24 h post inoculation in Chiriya-3. The findings reported in the present study indicate that β-1,3-glucanase production in the B. sorokiniana infected wheat leaves may be involved in resistance to the pathogen.

Restricted access

Fusarium wilt of tomato is one of the most prevalent and economically important diseases of tomato worldwide especially in tropical regions. The aims of the present study were to isolate and characterize Bacillus bacteria from tomato rhizospheric soil of various regions in Iran and determine the isolates that exhibit high levels of antagonistic efficiency against tomato Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and growth promotion activity. In this study, 303 Bacillus isolates were obtained from tomato rhizospheric soil. Dual culture and volatile metabolite tests were used to screen for antagonism of Bacillus isolates against Fol. Among them, 20 isolates were found to inhibit pathogen growth by 67.77% and 33.33% in dual culture and volatile metabolite tests, respectively. Based on the results of physiological tests and 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequence analysis of 20 effective isolates, 11, seven and two isolates were identified as B. subtilis, B. velezensis and B. cereus, respectively. The results of greenhouse assessment showed that KR1-2, KR2-7 and A2-9 isolates which were characterized as Bacillus subtilis, reduced the disease index to 16.67% and promoted the plant growth by 80%. These isolates may serve as potential promising biocontrol agents against Fusarium wilt of tomato.

Restricted access

Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) is one of the most devastating diseases of chickpea. The biocontrol potential of fungal antagonists, Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma viride, Acremonium implicatum were explored under in vitro and in vivo. A. implicatum isolate-1 overgrew the host mycelium and caused lysis, while A. implicatum isolate-2 produced inhibition zone. C. globosum profusely overgrew the mycelium of A. rabiei and T. viride showed overgrowth and profuse sporulation. Bioassay with culture filtrates of all the antagonists resulted in significant inhibition of pycnidiospore germination and reduction in colony development of A. rabiei. Syringe filtered culture filtrate when amended in liquid broth medium also significantly reduced the mycelial growth. Bioassay of culture filtrates under glass house conditions, although brought reduction in disease development in both pre- and post-inoculation sprays, but C. globosum was the most effective antagonist causing 73.12% reduction in disease index when used as post inoculation spray. Under in vitro conditions C. globosum caused 48.59% reduction in colony diameter and 70.86% reduction in pycnidiospore germination.

Restricted access

Fourteen strains of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from Algerian desert soils and assessed for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium crown and root rot of wheat. Biocontrol efficiency of Trichoderma spp. was studied by in vitro and in vivo based bioassay against three pathogenic species: F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. verticillioides. In vitro based bioassay (dual culture) results obtained with all Trichoderma spp. isolates showed significant decrease in colony diameter of Fusarium species compared to the control. The highest percentages of reduction in colony diameter were obtained with T. harzianum Thr.4 causing a growth reduction of 70.68%, 67.05 and 70.57% against F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. verticillioides, respectively. All Trichoderma spp. isolates were able to overgrow and sporulate above F. culmorum colonies but no overgrowth was observed with F. graminearum and F. verticilliodes. The seed treatment by Trichoderma spp. isolates before sowing in a soil already infested by the pathogens led to a significant decrease of disease severity compared to the untreated control. The highest disease index decrease (>70%) was obtained with two isolates of T. harzianum (Thr.4 and Thr.10) and T. viride Tv.6 against the three fungal pathogens. Lytic enzymes production by Trichoderma spp. isolates was tested in liquid cultures containing fungal cell walls of each pathogen as sole carbon source. Higher levels of protease and chitinase activities were induced by hyphal cell walls of F. graminearum than cell walls of F. verticillioides and F. culmorum. T. harzianum Thr.4 exhibited the highest enzyme activities with hyphal cell walls of F. graminearum and F. culmorum. However, in the medium amended with cell wall of F. verticillioides, maximal lytic activities were recorded for T. viride Tv.6.

Restricted access

: Public Health: Rare diseases – What are they? http://ec.europa.eu/health-eu/health_problems/rare_diseases/index_en.htm European Medicines Agency: Orphan designation. http

Open access

A monoklonális gammopathia szemészeti jelei és szövődményei.

42 beteg 84 szemének vizsgálata

Ocular signs and comorbidities in monoclonal gammopathy.

Analysis of 84 eyes of 42 subjects
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Kitti Kormányos, Klaudia Kovács, Orsolya Németh, Gábor Tóth, Gábor László Sándor, Anita Csorba, Cecília Nóra Czakó, Achim Langenbucher, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, Gergely Varga, László Gopcsa, Gábor Mikala, and Nóra Szentmáry

Összefoglaló. Célkitűzés: A monoklonális gammopathia szemészeti jeleinek és szövődményeinek vizsgálata. Betegek és módszerek: Két nagy budapesti hematológiai ellátóhely 1999 és 2020 között diagnosztizált és/vagy kezelt, monoklonális gammopathiát mutató betegeit vizsgáltuk (42 beteg 84 szeme, 42,86% férfi; átlagéletkor 63,83 ± 10,76 év). A hematológiai diagnózis 3 esetben bizonytalan jelentőségű monoklonális gammopathia, 34 esetben myeloma multiplex, 3 esetben parázsló myeloma, 1-1 esetben Waldenström-macroglobulinaemia és amyloidosis voltak. Kontrollcsoportként véletlenszerűen kiválasztott, hasonló korcsoportú, hematológiai betegség nélküli egyéneket vizsgáltunk (43 beteg 86 szeme, 32,56% férfi; átlagéletkor 62,44 ± 11,89 év). A szemészeti vizsgálat előtt minden személy kitöltötte a Szemfelszíni Betegség Index (OSDI-) kérdőívet. A szemészeti vizsgálat során a látóélesség vizsgálata mellett pupillatágítást követően réslámpás vizsgálatot végeztünk. Eredmények: Monoklonális gammopathiában az OSDI-érték szignifikánsan magasabb volt, mint a kontrollokban (p = 0,002). Gammopathiában 3 beteg 5 szeménél (5,95%) találtunk potenciális szaruhártya-immunglobulinlerakódást. Gammopathiában szárazszem-betegség 66,67%-ban, szürke hályog 55,95%-ban, Meibom-mirigy-diszfunkció 20,24%-ban, hátsó kérgi szürke hályog 19,05%-ban, egyéb szaruhártyahegek és -homályok 17,86%-ban, krónikus szemhéjgyulladás 14,29%-ban, szemészeti eltérés hiánya 11,90%-ban, macula- és/vagy retinadrusen 9,52%-ban, szaruhártya-immunglobulinlerakódás 5,95%-ban, epiretinalis membrán 5,95%-ban, korábbi szürkehályog-műtét 5,95%-ban, glaucoma 4,76%-ban, Fuchs-dystrophia 2,38%-ban, perifériás retinadegeneráció 2,38%-ban, chorioidea naevus 2,38%-ban, diabeteses retinopathia 1,19%-ban, arteria centralis retinae elzáródás 1,19%-ban, vena centralis retinae ágelzáródás 1,19%-ban, amblyopia 1,19%-ban volt kimutatható. A szárazszem-betegség (p = 0,002), a hátsó kérgi szürke hályog (p = 0,001), a szürke hályog (p<0,00001) és az egyéb szaruhártyahegek és -homályok (p = 0,01) szignifikánsan magasabb arányban fordultak elő a monoklonális gammopathiát mutató betegekben, mint a kontrollokban. Következtetés : Monoklonális gammopathiában a szárazszem-betegség és a szürke hályog a leggyakoribb szemészeti eltérés. A monoklonális gammopathia potenciális szemészeti jelei és szövődményei miatt javasoljuk a betegek évenkénti szemészeti ellenőrzését, életminőségük javítása érdekében. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(38): 1533–1540.

Summary. Objective: To examine ocular signs and ocular comorbidities in monoclonal gammopathy. Patients and methods: We analyzed patients from two large referral hematology centers in Budapest, who were diagnosed and/or treated with monoclonal gammopathy between 1997 and 2020 (84 eyes of 42 patients, 42.86% male, mean age 63.83 ± 10.76 years). Before the ophthalmic examination, the subjects filled in the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. Ophthalmic examination included visual acuity test and slit-lamp examination following dilation of the pupil. Results: OSDI scores were significantly higher in subjects with monoclonal gammopathy than in controls (p = 0.002). Among gammopathy subjects, we observed potential corneal immunoglobulin deposition in 5 eyes of 3 patients (5.95%). In gammopathy subjects, there was dry eye disease (66.67%), cataract (55.95%), Meibomian gland dysfunction (20.24%), posterior cortical cataract (19.05%), corneal scars and degenerations (17.86%), chronic blepharitis (14.29%), absence of ocular complaint (11.90%), macular or retinal drusen (9.52%), corneal immunoglobulin deposition (5.95%), epiretinal membrane (5.95%), previous cataract surgery (5.95%), glaucoma (4.76%), Fuchs dystrophy (2.38%), peripheral retinal degeneration (2.38%), chorioideal naevus (2.38%), diabetic retinopathy (1.19%), central retinal artery occlusion (1.19%), central retinal vein branch occlusion (1.19%) and amblyopia (1.19%). The proportion of dry eye disease (p = 0.002), posterior cortical cataract (p = 0.001), cataract (p<0.00001), and corneal scars and degenerations (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in gammopathy subjects than in controls. Conclusion: Dry eye disease and cataracts are the most common ocular comorbidities in patients with monoclonal gammopathy. Therefore, due to the potential ocular signs and comorbidities of monoclonal gammopathy, we suggest a regular, yearly ophthalmic checkup of these patients to improve their quality of life. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(38): 1533–1540.

Open access

Kuhn, C.W., Smith, T.H. (1977): Effectiveness of a disease index system in evaluating corn for resistance to maize dwarf mosaic virus. Phytopathology 67, 288–291 Smith T

Restricted access

, and disease index was calculated with the help of following formula: Disease Severity = Area of Plant Part Affected Total Area × 100 Disease Index = Number of Plants in Particular Category Total Number of Plants × 100

Open access