Authors:Viktória Kállai, Gábor L. Szepesi, and Péter Mizsey
1 Introduction Distillation is a separation technology, which is based on the different boiling points (or volatilities) of the components mixture. This process is really energy- and cost-intensive, and frequently used in chemical industry [ 1
Authors:Caturwati Ni Ketut, Yusuf Yusvardi, and Komara Fajar Muhamad
treatment technology is needed to make non-consumable water into clean water, and solar distillation is the most efficient method for providing freshwater from brackish and/or seawater. Solar water distiller uses the heat of sun radiation to increase the
This study was based on the production of an alcoholic beverage from apple using laboratory pervaporation equipment. Hungarian fruit brandy is called pálinka, which can be made by pot distiller or multistage distiller made of copper. In case of traditional pot still distillation the final product is gained from two separate distillations. Pervaporation is an energy efficient membrane process for separating liquid mixtures. Application of pervaporation to separate the product of the initial distillation leads to lower energy consumption than using double-distillation process. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative technology for the production of pálinka that integrates distillation and pervaporation.
Authors:K. Jurica, I. Brčić Karačonji, D. Lasić, D. Vukić Lušić, S. Anić Jurica, and D. Lušić
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that, due to their lipophilicity, migrate more readily into beverages with higher ethanol content. The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of phthalates in samples during the plum spirit production and in the final product, plum spirit manufactured by registered producers from five European countries, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A decreasing trend of mean values was observed for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as the distillation process went on. Levels of benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) increased in the distillation phase compared to concentrations in the preceding phases. In commercial plum spirits, DEHP and DiBP were detected in the highest concentrations. Results also indicated that a moderate daily consumption of plum spirit does not pose a health risk regarding the Tolerable Daily Intake of BBP, DEHP, and DBP
Positron-emitting isotopes of arsenic, 70As (T1/2 = 53 min), 71As (T1/2 = 64 h), 72As (T1/2 = 26 h), and 73As (T1/2 = 17.8 d) are of interest in biomedical investigations using PET. A fast and simple method for their production using low-energy proton and deuteron reactions on enriched Ge-targets is presented. Dry distillation of GeO2 at 1105 °C during 2 hours provides a separation efficiency of more than 60%. The loss of target material is less than one per cent and the irradiated targets can be used several times. The method allows production of diagnostically useful amounts of positron-emitting arsenic isotopes using accelerators commonly available at PET-centres.
The use of radioactive tracers provide valuable methods for the investigation of distillation processes and have been applied
to determine the characteristics of material streams, the dynamics of flowing phases and the compositions in various parts
of the distillation equipment. A method is proposed for testing individual radiotracers employed for the investigation of
the distillation of hydrocarbons. The method consists in laboratory-scale distillation of a tracer together with a multicomponent
hydrocarbon mixture, namely a gasoline fraction. The purification efficiency, distillation characteristics, and effective
radiochemical purity of several tracers (reactor activated bromobenzene and synthesized C3H782Br, C4H982Br, C5H1182Br) have been investigated. The distillation characteristics of bromohydrocarbons labelled with82Br and selected hydrocarbons tagged with14C (benzene and cumene) have been compared. The radiotracers investigated were employed for the determination of the hydrodynamic
parameters of hydrocarbon distillation in laboratory packed columns and a commercial distillation tower.
Authors:Maria Luisa A. Gonçalves, Deusa A. Pinto da Mota, Ana Maria R. F. Teixeira, and M. A. G. Teixeira
Summary Thermogravimetry (TG) is a potential tool to evaluate petroleum distillation residues, obtained in the crude oil distillation. Analyses were done at different heating rates, mass samples and gas flow rates. No differences were observed in the yields of the products formed during the pyrolysis at different analytical conditions. Linear correlation was found between the results of the TG and the standard methods for the prediction of the light fraction rates given by the pyrolysis.