al., 2020 ). The infection is known to be transmitted by two modes: directly from dog to dog or via tick bites from mainly Haemaphysalis spp. ticks (such as H. longicornis or Haemaphysalis hystricis ), while a role for Rhipicephalus sanguineus
report an interesting case of PF with concurrent naturally occurring HAC and assess the efficacy of an alternative to glucocorticoid therapy for this combined disorder. Case report A 10-year-old, 3.5-kg, spayed female Shih Tzu dog with a history of HAC
Beta-catenin is a protein initially identified as a submembrane component of the E-cadherin-mediated cell-to-cell adhesion system. It plays a role as a transcriptional factor in the wingless/Wnt signalling pathway. Beta-catenin has been associated with oncogenic activity in human benign and malignant pilomatrix neoplasms where the immunohistochemical profile of β-catenin expression displayed both nuclear and cytoplasmic staining in basaloid cells. In this study, an 8-year-old female Irish setter dog was examined because of the presence of skin nodules. Tissue biopsies from different nodules were obtained and histological examination suggested a diagnosis of pilomatrix carcinoma. The dog spontaneously died after 2 months and necropsy showed multiple metastases in the nasal cavity, lungs, heart, kidney, liver and colon. Routine histopathology of metastatic sites showed features consistent with the pattern of primary neoplastic nodules. Immunohistochemical detection of β-catenin was performed in both the primary tumour and the metastases. Beta-catenin expression was located in the nuclei, cytoplasm and membrane of squamoid cells and in the cytoplasm of basaloid cells, while shadow cells were completely negative. To the best of our knowledge, these data represent the first report on the immunohistochemical expression profile of β-catenin in canine pilomatrix carcinoma.
Most of the studies investigating the effect of early rearing environment in dogs used laboratory dogs and reported that early experiences markedly affect the puppies’ behavior. However, the subjects of these experiments cannot be considered as representatives of family dogs.
In this study, we investigated whether different raising conditions shape social behavior toward humans in 8-week-old family dog puppies of two breeds, Labrador and Czechoslovakian wolf dog. The puppies were tested in a series of tests that represented typical situations of family dogs.
We found that Czechoslovakian wolf dog puppies were more active than Labrador puppies in general, as they were more likely to explore the environment and the objects and spent more time doing so. Tendency to gaze at humans also varied between breeds, but in a context-specific way. Additionally, puppies housed separately from their mother interacted more with toys, puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay closer to the experimenter than puppies raised in the house, and puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay in the proximity of the experimenter more than puppies raised in the house.
Our results provide evidence for early keeping conditions influencing social behavior and also highlight breed differences in puppies’ behavior. Whether these differences are due to different developmental patterns and/or behavioral predispositions remains to be explored.
Cystatin C is a serum protein with low molecular mass, which has been suggested as a marker to assess renal function in the dog. This protein is regularly assessed using particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA), in which rabbit anti-human cystatin C antibodies are used. The purpose of this work was to compare the results of cystatin C analysis obtained by PETIA and PENIA assays in the dog. Forty dogs of different genders and breeds were classified into four groups of 10 animals each based on serum creatinine concentrations (4 stages of chronic kidney disease). Serum cystatin C concentration was measured using PETIA and PENIA assays, the results were compared, and correlation with serum urea and creatinine concentrations was established. The correlation coefficient for results obtained using PETIA and PENIA assays was r = 0.706. Serum cystatin C concentrations obtained in PETIA had a lower correlation coefficient with creatinine concentrations than those found in PENIA (r = 0.614 and r = 0.904, respectively); similarly, serum cystatin C was less correlated with serum urea concentration in PETIA than in PENIA (r = 0.463 and r = 0.636, respectively). The results obtained in this study suggest that the nephelometric assay is more sensitive and was shown to be more closely correlated with other renal function indicators than the PETIA assay.
The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of canine urolithiasis in Hungary in order to determine the annual incidence of urolithiasis and to identify breeds at risk for different types of urolithiasis. Data of a total of 2,543 canine uroliths analysed in the laboratory of the Budapest Urolith Centre were evaluated retrospectively from 2001 to 2012. Logistic regression was used to assess odds ratios for the proportion of each affected breed compared to those of crossbreeds. The annual incidence of urolithiasis was evaluated by the number of submissions compared to the estimated number of dogs in the population from which the samples originated. Epidemiologic data revealed a relatively high and increasing proportion of struvite urolithiasis. Statistical analysis of breed predispositions resulted in the detection of breeds not having been reported at risk (e.g. Bernese Mountain dog — struvite, Bichon Frise, Bolognese, Tibetan Terrier — purine, French Bulldog — cystine). Conflicting results were revealed for some other breeds previously described as being affected by certain types of urolithiasis (Chihuahua, Pekingese, Shih Tzu, English Cocker Spaniel). Regardless of the type of urolithiasis, its average cumulative incidence in the dog population of Hungary was found to be 1.76/10,000/year.
A 7-year-old spayed female English Cocker Spaniel was examined because of a 1-week history of lethargy, stumbling over objects and circling, and the presence of two tonic-clonic generalised seizures two days before presentation. The neurological signs suggested a lesion involving the right forebrain. Computed tomography revealed the presence of two intracranial masses, one located inside the right lateral ventricle and the other located in the right frontal lobe attached to the falx cerebri. Because of the poor prognosis, the owner refused to continue with the therapy and the dog was euthanised. On postmortem examination one mass was diagnosed histologically as a meningioma and the other as a papilloma of the choroid plexus. Information in the veterinary literature on multiple malignancies affecting the central nervous system is very limited. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the association of meningioma and choroid plexus papilloma has never been reported either in the human or in the veterinary medical literature.
In Fejér county, Daruszentmiklós, F-005 site an Avar Period settlement (7th–8th century) was excavated. 341 pieces of dog bones originated from 36 objects: Skeleton or skeleton part of 7 individuals and few parts of 35 individuals were found. The animals were 2 infants, 2 juveniles, 37 adultus and 1 maturus age individuals. Most of the dogs were slim, medium size sheperd dogs belonged to the Canis familiaris intermedius type. There were a few individuals from the Canis familiaris matris optimae type. The number of dog bones from Avar Period is small, so the dogs from Daruszentmiklós are remarkable.
The findings of ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 265 dogs with GI disorders were analysed retrospectively. The sonographic changes associated with various inflammatory and neoplastic conditions and mechanical obstruction of the GI system were recorded and discussed. Sonographic alterations of the pancreas and the tissues adjacent to the GI tract were also included in the study. Ultrasonographic alterations of the GI tract were classified into three main categories: thickening of the GI wall, changes in peristalsis and dilation of the lumen. Localised thickening of the GI wall with disruption of its structure was caused by both neoplastic diseases and by inflammatory disorders. However, diffuse thickening with retained wall structure was generally associated with inflammatory diseases. The criteria previously established for the ultrasonographic diagnosis of intestinal obstruction were successfully applied to a large number of GI disorders. Pancreatitis was most often associated with hyperechoic mesentery and hypoechoic pancreas mass, but similar alterations were encountered in some cases of gastric or duodenal ulceration. Except in cases of invaginations and intestinal obstructions, the observed ultrasonographic changes were not specific enough for a definitive diagnosis. Nevertheless, ultrasonography proved to be a valuable technique in the diagnostic process of GI disorders of the dog.