colon ( Kilic et al., 2008 ) cancers. However, articles investigating D-dimer levels of dogs with cancer are sporadic in the veterinary literature ( Andreasen et al., 2012; de la Fuente et al., 2014; Font et al., 2015; Kang et al., 2016 ). Based on the
drugs ( Bathia and Tandon, 2005; Allenspach et al., 2007; Suchodolski et al., 2010; Simpson and Jergens, 2011; Sheehan et al., 2015 ). The clinical signs of IBD in dogs are non-specific and include vomiting, diarrhoea, weight loss, bloating, abdominal
Introduction Internal hydrocephalus is a common malformation of the central nervous system (CNS) in dogs, characterised by the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral ventricles and enlargement of the ventricular system
Nutritional support in critically ill patients is a fundamental principle of patient care. Little is known about gallbladder motility during the interdigestive phase and in response to enteral feeding. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of enteral feeding on gallbladder function in dogs. The cholagogue meal (Lipofundin infusion) was applied in four anatomical positions (jejunum, duodenojejunal junction, descending duodenum, stomach) in five healthy Beagle dogs. Gallbladder volume (GBV) was monitored by ultrasonography. Lipofundin infusion given through the feeding tube caused a maximal gallbladder contraction of 9.2% (range 3.7–13.9%) in the jejunum, 16.5% (9.1–22.1%) at the duodenojejunal junction and 26.3% (22.8–29.5%) in the descending duodenum. When the cholagogue meal was given through the mouth, it caused a mean 33.8% (28.6–46.5%) maximum gallbladder contraction in the same animals. In conclusion, we can establish that the ultrasound-guided gallbladder emptying method proved to be a useful technique for monitoring the cholagogue effect of Lipofundin meal applied in different anatomical positions of the intestine. The deeper the position of application, the smaller and shorter gallbladder contraction was evoked.
To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected:
(14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%),
-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in military working (100%) and stray dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including
, Ancylostomatidae and
were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the subgroups (100%, 62.7% and 46.2% for military working dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission.
Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that cause severe infections in animals and humans, capable to acquire, express, and transfer antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method in 222 Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from the fecal samples of 287 healthy domestic dogs. Vancomycin and ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) tests were also performed. Isolates showed resistance mainly to streptomycin (88.7%), neomycin (80.6%), and tetracycline (69.4%). Forty-two (18.9%) isolates showed an HLAR to streptomycin and 15 (6.7%) to gentamicin. Vancomycin and ampicillin MIC values showed 1 and 18 resistant strains, respectively. One hundred and thirty-six (61.2%) strains were classified as multidrug resistant and six (2.7%) strains as possibly extensively drug-resistant bacteria. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were the most prevalent antimicrobial resistant species. Companion animals, which often live in close contact with their owners and share the same environment, represent a serious source of enterococci resistant to several antibiotics; for this reason, they may be a hazard for public health by providing a conduit for the entrance of resistance genes into the community.
Ticks of the genus Ixodes are vectors for many pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp., and may also serve as vectors for Bartonella spp. However, the role of ticks in Bartonella transmission requires additional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether coinfection with two or more vector-borne pathogens can occur in the following three groups of dogs: I — dogs with suspected borreliosis (N = 92), II — dogs considered healthy (N = 100), and III — dogs with diagnosed babesiosis (N = 50). Polymerase chain reactions were performed to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in the blood of dogs. In dogs of Group I, the DNA of both A. phagocytophilum and Bartonella sp. was detected (14% and 1%, respectively). In eight dogs, coinfection was indicated: A. phagocytophilum or Bartonella sp. with B. burgdorferi s.l. (the presence of antibodies against and/or DNA B. burgdorferi s.l.). In the case of five dogs positive for A. phagocytophilum DNA, no coinfection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was shown. In Group II, the DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in four dogs. In Group III, no pathogenic agents possibly transmitted by ticks were confirmed. No DNA of R. helvetica was detected in any of the groups studied.
The effect of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (carprofen and ketoprofen) on platelet adhesion and aggregation functions was evaluated by the PFA-100® analyser (Dade-Behring, CA, USA) using its collagen-adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen-epinephrine (EPI) cartridges. The function of platelets was evaluated in 55 healthy dogs, in 7 dogs treated with ketoprofen and in 31 dogs treated with carprofen in a therapeutic dose for minimum 5 days. The therapeutic doses of carprofen had no effect on the closure time of PFA-100 (which is the marker of platelet function) but ketoprofen caused a significant increase when using collagen-EPI stimulation The closure times for both the healthy (control) and the treated dogs using EPI cartridges were often longer than the upper default cut-off point (300 sec) of the device. The PFA-100 analyser with collagen-ADP cartridges could be a useful tool for veterinary applications including the evaluation of platelet aggregation in dogs treated with NSAIDs. The upper cut-off point of PFA-100 might be extended.
Canine babesiosis is a frequent and clinically significant tick-borne disease. Sixty symptomatic dogs with clinical findings compatible with babesiosis were included in this study conducted in Serbia. After clinical examination, blood samples were taken for microscopic examination, complete blood count (CBC), Canine SNAP 4Dx Test, DNA analyses and sequencing. The main clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, fever, brown/red discoloration of urine, pale mucous membranes, icterus, splenomegaly, and vomiting. The main clinicopathological findings in Babesia infections were a slight to severe thrombocytopenia and a mild to very severe normocytic normochromic anaemia. Microscopic evaluation revealed 58 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 57 and 1 sample(s), respectively. No co-infections were found using SNAP test. Two Babesia species, B. canis (58/60) and B. gibsoni (2/60), were differentiated by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Species identification was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of B. gibsoni samples and six randomly selected B. canis samples. All dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6.6 mg/kg of body weight), given intramuscularly twice at an interval of 14 days. This report presents the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of B. gibsoni and B. canis, confirmed by DNA sequencing, in sick dogs from Serbia.
The goal of this study was to determine the distribution of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic dysfunctions and their prognostic value in canine parvovirus-infected dogs suffering from severe sepsis and septic shock (SS/SS). Twenty dogs with SS/SS (experimental group) and 18 healthy dogs (control group) were used in the study. Systolic and diastolic dysfunction was present in three (15%) and 14 (70%) diseased dogs, respectively, with both types of dysfunction present in two (10%) of the patients. These dogs were split into two groups: survivors (Sv, n = 14) and non-survivors (non-Sv, n = 6). The pulsed wave tissue Doppler (PW-TDI) septal mitral annulus systolic velocity (LVS'), an index of systolic dysfunction, had a high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate Sv and non-Sv animals, with values of 83.3% (95% CI: 41.6–98.4) and 83.3% (95% CI: 59.8–94.8), respectively, at an optimum cut-off point of ≥ 9.90. The PW-TDI septal early mitral annulus early-diastolic peak velocity (E'), an index of diastolic dysfunction, had the best sensitivity and specificity to differentiate Sv and non-Sv dogs, with values of 100% (95% CI: 55.2–100) and 100% (95% CI: 78.9–100), respectively, at an optimum cut-off point of ≤ 6.50. Therefore, diastolic dysfunction determined by E' is a good independent outcome predictor.