section 27(4) of the Trademark Act, as amended in 2005, provides enforcement against intermediaries whose services are used by a third party (that is usually the infringer itself) for the infringement. In the HYUNDAI case the registrars of the domain names, trusted by the resellers of cars having formerly been members of the HYUNDAI commercial chain in Hungary, were sued together with the resellers for the reason that they did not cancel the registration of the domain names after the commercial chain had been ceased. The Hungarian courts of first and second instance built their judgements on the ECJ’s BMW judgement (C-63/97). Emphasis is given also on a case relating to infringement by an operator of an Internet home page, as the latter was condemned by the Hungarian Court of first instance for not complying with the Act on Electronic Commerce. Nevertheless, the court of second instance condemned him not therefore but for the tort in respect of the provisions of the Civil Code, e.g. for injury of reputation. Finally, the article is closed by an outlook on ideas on the development of EC law relating to liability of intermediaries.
Authors:Chuanfu Chen, Yuan Yu, Qiong Tang, Kuei Chiu, Yan Rao, Xuan Huang, and Kai Sun
as name(s) of the author or publisher and his/her institutional affiliation; this makes it difficult to determine the authority of information.
When analyzing characteristics of the samples, we sorted them by domainname, discipline and
Authors:Maurizio Martinelli, Irma Serrecchia, and Michela Serrecchia
This paper analyzes Internet diffusion among various organizations, based on daily observation of second- level domain name
registrations under the “.it”ccTLD. In particular, we analyzed domain names registered by organizations in the non-profit
sector.The penetration rate, calculated according to the number of organizations,
was computed for various widely separated geographic levels (regions). A concentration analysis was performed in order to
determine whether the geographical distribution of Internet use in Italy is less concentrated with respect to both the number
of existing institutions and income distribution, suggesting a diffusive effect.Regression analysis was performed using demographic, social, economic and infrastructure indicators.
Results show thata “social digital divide”exists, both in terms of geographical
distribution (i.e., in macro-areas - Northern, Central, and Southern Italy - and at the regional level) and in terms of the
legal status of the organizations, and that this digital divide will probably decrease in the future.
been accepted for many years that academic research groups have a Web presence which may be just a webpage listing all university or departmental research groups. In other cases, however, there may be a multiple-page website with its own domainname and
most important field repositories, with hundreds of thousands papers coming from all over the world, are using servers with domainnames of the universities (CiteSeerX in Pennsylvania State University: http://citeseerx.psu.edu/
). This fact is evident
Authors:Gohar Feroz Khan, Seong Eun Cho, and Han Woo Park
are domainname segments, that is, the part of the URL after “http://” and before the first subsequent slash (e.g., www.bbc.co.uk ). We used Webometric Analyst (Zuccala and Thelwall 2006 ; Park 2010 ) to process the returned samples of estimated