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their own language. In transferring these elements, they may use the same solutions as translators: they may transfer some other-language CSEs into the ST with the help of foreignizing strategies or they may use domesticating strategies. In the former

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Hypotheses of Dog Domestication Today, it is commonly accepted that dogs were domesticated as the first animal about 25,000 years ago ( Thalmann et al., 2013 ). Researchers are still figuring out, why and how this domestication

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Bökönyi, S. (1962) Zur Naturgeschichte des Ures in Ungarn und das Problem der Domestication des Hausrindes. Acta Archaeol. Hung. 14 , 175–214. Bökönyi S. Zur Naturgeschichte des

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As one of the world’s earliest domesticated crops, barley is a model species for the study of evolution and domestication. Domestication is an evolutionary process whereby a population adapts, through selection; to new environments created by human cultivation. We describe the genome-scanning of molecular diversity to assess the evolution of barley in the Tibetan Plateau. We used 667 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to genotype 185 barley landraces and wild barley accessions from the Tibetan Plateau. Genetic diversity in wild barley was greater than in landraces at both genome and chromosome levels, except for chromosome 3H. Landraces and wild barley accessions were clearly differentiated genetically, but a limited degree of introgression was still evident. Significant differences in diversity between barley subspecies at the chromosome level were observed for genes known to be related to physiological and phenotypical traits, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, malting quality and agronomic traits. Selection on the genome of six-rowed naked barley has shown clear multiple targets related to both its specific end-use and the extreme environment in Tibet. Our data provide a platform to identify the genes and genetic mechanisms that underlie phenotypic changes, and provide lists of candidate domestication genes for modified breeding strategies.

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, T. R. , Register , K. B. , Marks , S. A. and Temple , L. ( 2002 ): Prevalence of Bordetella avium infection in selected wild and domesticated birds in the Eastern USA . J. Wildl. Dis . 38 , 40 – 3

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Glutenin and gliadin subunits play a key role in flour processing quality by network formation in dough. Wild relatives of crops have served as a pool of genetic variation for decades. In this study, 180 accessions from 12 domesticated and wild relatives of wheat were characterized for the glutenin and gliadin genes with allele-specific molecular markers. A total of 24 alleles were detected for the Glu-A3 and Gli-2A loci, which out of 19 amplified products identified as new alleles. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 90 and 65% of the genetic diversity were partitioned within two Aegilops and Triticum genera and their species, respectively. Furthermore, all glutenin and gliadin analyzed loci were polymorphic, indicating large genetic diversity within and between the wild species. Our results revealed that allelic variation of Glu-3A and Gli-As.2 is linked to genomic constitutions so that, Ae. caudata (C genome), Ae. neglecta (UM genome), Ae. umbellulata (U genome) and T. urartu (Au genome) harbor wide variation in the studied subunits. Hence, these species can be used in wheat quality breeding programs.

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Domestication and Foreignisation in Translation Studies

University of Eastern Finland, Finland, Joensuu, eptember 29–October 1, 2011

Across Languages and Cultures
Author: Marja Jänis
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This study deals with the Ancient Latin and Old Hungarian adaptations of the most drastic myth of Tereus, Philomela and Progne. Ovid inserted the story into the 6th book of the Metamomorphoses (lines 424–674). István Gyöngyösi, called “Hungarian Ovid” by right, adapted an Ovidian text in compliance with baroque literary and translation aspects. The translation makes part of the poem called Csalárd Cupido (Fraudulent Cupido) composed in hardly identifiable epic genre in the 17th century. The Ovidian insertion became the third part of the four-part poem, focusing on the demonstration of the outrages caused by Cupido. The main characteristics of the Gyöngyösi’s adaptation are: the domestication (for example in the case of the Dionysian rites), the large insertions, the enlargement and amplification, the borrowings and changings of the motifs and patterns and the spectacular actualisation. The motive of the fire is, for example, much more emphased in the Hungarian version. Both of the authors makes capital of the rhetorics, but the Hungarian text turns up the rhetorical elements and uses them as the instrument or device of the retardation and of the itemization or specification. The animal motifs being found several times in the text are used to exagerate or heighten the drastic apspects and to point out to demonstrate some animal qualities of the human beeings.

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Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: József Topál, Ádám Miklósi, Enikő Kubinyi, Márta Gácsi, Antal Dóka, Péter Pongrácz, Zsófia Virányi, and Vilmos Csányi

A specifikus viselkedési komplexbe szerveződött humán szociális viselkedések alapvető jellegzetessége, hogy az egyes elemeket érintő evolúciós változások csak a többi képességgel összefüggésben történhettek (Csányi, 2000). E komplexum elemeinek egyidejű felbukkanása és párhuzamos fejlődése a homini­záció folyamatán keresztül végül egy humánspecifikus viselkedésrendszer megjelenéséhez vezetett. A humán szociális kogníció kutatásának evolúciós kérdéseit a hagyományos megközelítésben a főemlősök és az ember homológ tulajdonságainak összehasonlításával vizsgálhatjuk. Emellett azonban napjainkban olyan más fajok is előtérbe kerültek melyek a humán szocio-kognitív képességek evolúciós analógiáit megjelenítve szintén alkalmasak fajunk kialakulásának modellezésére. Úgy tűnik, a kutyák megfelelő viselkedési modellt jelentenek a nyelv kialakulása előtt megjelenő humán szociális készségek néhány jellemzője, különösen a vizuális és a nem verbális vokális jelek tanulmányozásához. Írásunkban amellett érvelünk, hogy a kutyák konvergens szociális evolúciója modellezi a korai (pre­ling­vis­z­tikus) humán szociális evolúciót. Bemutatjuk, hogy a humán viselkedési komplexum számos, funkcionálisan analóg eleme jelen van a kutyákban, melyek az emberi környezethez történő adaptáció révén a humán szociális kompetenciával analóg kutyaspecifikus viselkedéselemekként kerültek be a kutya viselkedési komplexbe .

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Browicz, K., Zohary, D. (1996): The genus Amygdalus L. ( Rosaceae ): Species relationships, distribution and evolution under domestication. Genet. Resour. Crop Ev. , 43 , 229–247. Zohary D

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