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subjects coteaching together. Therefore, this case study contributes with a new design, having experienced teachers from two different aesthetic subjects, music and drama, planning, teaching and evaluating together in higher education, more specifically, in

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happens in Hamlet? Exploring the psychological foundations of drama. In J. Gottschall and D. S. Wilson (eds): Literature and the Human Animal. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Literature and the Human

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Summary The topic of this paper is one of the frequent motives in Macedonian contemporary drama: a voluntary exile from one's own country and the desire for better and more fortunate life. “A desire for distance' (Walter Benjamin) is attractive and frightening at the same time. The myth of the attraction of the other place is one of the oldest myths in history. From Homer to the Romantics, from the philosophy of Existentialism to a feeling of being a stranger today, this myth has not lost anything. Working away from one's native place as a condition of Otherness reveals certain relations between home and foreign country, but also, between Me and not-Me (Me as the Other). The problem of a person's identity, but also the problem of national and gender identity, have transformed the myth of the other place into the myth of the home. Paradoxically the exile in space becomes an exile of human soul. The literary practice of the contemporary Macedonian dramatic authors: Goran Stefanovski, Kole Chashule, Jugoslav Petrovski and others, illustrate the already mentioned stereotypes and images of the “self' and the “other'.

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Summary  

Ghandi's satyagraha, passive resistance, initiated in 1906 and Mandela's armed resistance championed by Umhkonto we Sizwe begun in 1961 very probably marked the opposite extremes of the anti-apartheid struggle. The chasm between these two strategies points in the direction of dramatic unfolding of historical events in the racist enclave necessitating a sober reappraisal in tactics. In the cultural onslaught against apartheid in which literature had a focal position the debate was not only about the authentic mode of resistance but also fundamentally about the authentic form of anti-apartheid literature itself. Apartheid South African theatre, polarised by the institutionalised inequalities of the system in white and black communities, inhibited in both by ruthless censorship laws, acknowledging different, even contrasted, philosophical and technical inspiration, offered varying spectacles of the South African experience. If Fugard's (early) drama, demonstrably indebted to Camus's The Myth of Sisyphus, valorises an essentially passive form of resistance, Nkosi's attraction to and anxiety about Fanonian revolutionary violence on the other hand respond to South African history itself.

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Abstract  

The circulation of world drama beyond its origin is to a large extent dependent on its intercultural performances, which are often done in unexpected forms for an indefinite body of audiences. In contemporary China, the adaptations and performances of Western plays have played an important role within and without theatre. In those intercultural adaptations, Western plays are translated, appropriated and staged by interweaving Chinese and Western performing cultures. So far, the adaptations of Western plays have brought about transformative effects on both the Western playwrights and Chinese theatre. Compared with the early ones, contemporary adaptations of Western plays have acquired some new characteristics. Firstly, there have appeared some international casts using different languages, as the audiences in the theatre are becoming bilingual or multilingual. Secondly, more and more Western plays are adapted into traditional Chinese theatrical forms, such as jingju, kunju, yueju, chuanju, quju, etc. One of the most obvious differences between traditional Chinese opera and spoken drama is that singing plays the leading role in the former. In some local opera performances, dialects are naturally used. Thirdly, certain individual plays have been frequently adapted and staged in different localities. The adaptations are often closely related to the political and cultural specificities in the local contexts. Despite the complexities in its global circulation and production, world drama gains in the intercultural process of adaptation, staging and viewing.

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Forms of narrative such as drama allow for the transmission of information to large audiences. The drama therefore has to contain structural elements that are easily accessible to the viewer. The structures of 10 plays by William Shakespeare were studied and shown to exhibit small world properties, in that any node (character) in a network is connected to any other node by only a few intermediate steps. It is suggested that the number of characters that are present within each scene reflect similar numbers to those of observed human support cliques.  This might reflect possible cognitive limits, as when there is an increase in the number of characters within a play rather than add new characters to a scene Shakespeare has instead created new scenes, thus maintaining the scene clique size. These scene cliques are connected by a series of weak links (keystone characters) that maintain the flow of information within a growing network of characters. It is suggested that this might provide a useful basis for further research into the structure, purpose and development of drama.

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This paper aims to reexamine the arguments concerning the three main problems of the fragmentary Euripidean tragedy Phaethon , i.e. what character and conflict lies behind Phaethon's excessive reluctance to the marriage; who the mysterious bride is; and finally, what kind of exodos fits in the dramatic context on the basis of the fragmentary textual evidence. In my discussion Goethe's reconstruction is dealt with closely; moreover, the poet's suggestions prove to be valuable not only artistically, but philologically as well. Some personal bias of his treatment nevertheless hints at a new articulation of the Phaethontic character in the Euphorion-episode of FaustII and a general reevaluation of the hybris-drama.

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Presented: European Conference on Educational Research 2018 Proposal Information Applied theatre and drama in the school are able to reveal aspects of social life on dramatic, narrative, reflective, symbolic

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The contribution deals with the relations of Attic tragedy and its public according to Aristophanes's "Frogs". First there is evidence that the Greek tragic playwrights address their audience. The fictitious competition then, arranged in "Frogs" between Aeschylus and Euripides in the underworld, displays the requirements of tragic poetry. Notwithstanding their poetic and political differences the rivals of that agon agree with each other on the communicative function of tragedy. Aristophanes proves the great and free attitude which Attic tragedy, engaging for the benefit of the polis, took to its world and its public.

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The messenger speeches in some of Seneca's tragedies (the most extensive ones can be read in Agamemnon and Hercules Furens) constitute special epic details of the works. Their narrative technique, intertextual references and representation of time link them not with the dramatic literary form, but with the epic one, and Vergil's Aeneid is, beyond any doubt, their most important 'hypertextus'. The setting of the messenger reports has not been subordinated to the dramatic efficacy of the main conflict, they produce rather a generic multiplicity. The reform of closed literary forms and the generic heterogeneity are not unique phenomena in the literary life of this period; the meaning and importance of the innovation made by Seneca cannot be judged separately from the most important literary achievements of the period: Luc an's Bellum Civile and Petronius' Satyricon

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