Authors:Paula Jauregui, Ana Estévez, and Irache Urbiola
Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction that is often accompanied by other disorders, such as anxious and depressive disorders, and drug and alcohol abuse ( Barnes, Welte, Tidwell, & Hoffman, 2015 ; el
The thermal decomposition of antituberculous drugs-ethambutol (base and dihydrochloride), isoniazid, ethionamid and pyrazinamid
has been studied by DTA, TG and DTG techniques. General remarks have been made on their thermal destruction. The effect of
sample size over the range 20–200 mg and heating rate over the range 3–15 deg·min−1 on the thermal degradation has also been investigated. Moreover, based on the Kissinger’s equation, the values of the kinetic
parameters were determined.
The thermal decomposition of antituberculous, local anaesthetic and calcium salts of organic acids used as the drugs has been
studied by differential thermal and thermogravimetric techniques. General characteristics of their thermal decomposition has
been made. The effect of sample size over the range 20–200 mg and heating rate over the range 3–15 deg·min−1 on the thermal degradation has been investigated. The values of the kinetic parameters has been also determined.
Authors:Giovanna Bruni, C. Milanese, G. Bellazzi, V. Berbenni, P. Cofrancesco, A. Marini, and M. Villa
The processes of production of drugs and dosage forms in the solid state often cause unwanted transformation of portions of
the substances into amorphous state, with significant changes of properties such as stability and bio-availability. When this
amorphous fraction is of the order of a few percent, it usually goes unnoticed, but it should be accurately determined within
a quality control system. In this work, we consider a model drug, perphenazine, where partial amorphisation may be induced
by standard mechanical treatments.
We show that Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) leads to consistent estimations of the amorphous fractions induced by
the treatment. Furthermore, DSC also yields the expected amounts of amorphous perphenazine when analysing known mixtures of
perfectly crystalline samples (untreated) and partially amorphous samples (treated). We show that even amorphous fractions
of the order of 1% are accurately estimated by our method.
DSC was used together with other methods of pharmaceutical analysis (spectrophotometry, thin-layer chromatography) to estimate
the quality and standardization of two drugs—lipoic acid (polymerization upon melting, purity) and progesterone (melting temperature,
Chemical compatibility of two drugs, namely, etamsylate and fluconazole was studied with lactose as excipient, employing differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The DSC patterns recorded for the mixtures of both the
drugs with the common excipient (lactose) indicated that fluconazole as well as etamsylate were incompatible with lactose
at high temperatures. X-ray diffraction patterns recorded for pure drugs and lactose and the mixtures of individual drugs
with lactose prepared at room temperature by intimate grinding of the components revealed incompatibility of both the drugs
with lactose also at room temperature.
Authors:M. Soliman, Gehad Mohamed, and Eman Mohamed
Fenoterol (FEN, Fig. 1 ) is β_2-adrenoceptor agonist that may have clinical value in the treatment of congestive heart failure [ 1 , 2 ]. FEN possesses two chiral centers and the drug is supplied as a racemic
Authors:Hamid Arazi, Siavash Rahmati, and Hosein Ghafoori
numerous drugs. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that it can reduce oxidative stress by upregulating the antioxidant system [ 15–17 ]. Thus, the concurrence of exercise training and anabolic steroid consumption could be expected to modify the