A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the impact of premethanation (PREME) and postmethanation (POME) distillery effluent applied as pre-sowing irrigation (PSI) along with graded levels of inorganic fertilizers on the grain and straw yield and nutrient content of a rice crop (var. PR 116). Maximum grain yield (29.4 g pot
) was recorded with the application of 100% recommended NPK along with one pre-sowing irrigation (PSI) through POME and the lowest yield (7.4 g pot
) was obtained with 2 PSI applied through PREME without any inorganic fertilizers. The application of POME equivalent to 1 PSI was more effective in increasing the grain and straw yield of rice than no POME application or POME application equivalent to 2 PSI. A significant decrease in yield occurred with the application of 2 PSI of either effluent, and beyond 2 PSI the rice seedlings did not grow.In comparison to POME, the application of PREME increased the content of K (5%), Cu (10%), Fe (17%) and Mo (21%), but decreased that of P (12%), S (5%) and Mg (11%) in rice grain. In rice straw an increase was only observed in K (9%) and Mo (14%), while the contents of other nutrients (P, S, Zn, Cu, Mn) decreased by 8 to 21%. An increase in the level of effluent from 0 to 2 PSI significantly increased the content of N (by 21%), K (11%), S (10%), Zn (9%), Cu (21%) and Mo (8%), but decreased that of P (16%) and Mg (19%) in rice grain. In the case of rice straw, an increase in K (28%), S (32%), Cu (65%) and Mo (45%) content was recorded. Effluent application, inorganic fertilizers and their interactions had a significant effect on both the grain and straw yields and on the nutrient concentration in the plants.
Kurdali, F. (2004): Estimates of drymatteryield and N uptake in sorghum grown on saline and non-saline soils manured with dhaincha plant residues. J. Plant Nutr. , 27 , 1611-1633.
Estimates of drymatteryield and N uptake in
The low seedling vigour of Russian wildrye grass (
) (RWR) limits its use. Shading from durum wheat (
) reduced RWR leaf number, tiller number, leaf area and seedling dry weight in a growth room experiment. Treatments with similar shading differed in tiller number and dry weight, which suggested that light quality may have also contributed to these responses. In a second growth room experiment, light intensity (PAR) and red:far-red light ratio (670:730 nm) were altered by coloured plastic filters suspended above seedlings of Russian wildrye, crested wheatgrass (
) (CWG) and Dahurian wildrye grass (
) (DWR). Leaf area, tiller number and dry weight of RWR seedlings were reduced by declining red:far-red light ratio while light intensity differences at similar red:far-red ratio did not affect these variables. CWG exhibited similar responses to declining red:far-red light ratio as RWR, except that it exhibited a seedling weight response to light intensity. DWR tiller number was not responsive to low red:far-red light ratio but rather to low light intensity. However, DWR seedling weight, tiller weight and leaf area were responsive to declining red:far-red light ratio. These results indicate that RWR seedlings are sensitive to light quality changes caused by neighbouring plants.
This research was conducted between the years 1999-2002 in the experimental area of the Field Crops Department of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty in Turkey. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Four alfalfa cultivars were used. variance components, variance coefficients and heritability values were determined for morphological characters, herbage yield, dry matter yield and seed yield. The maximum main stem height (78.69 cm), main stem diameter (4.85 mm), leaflet width (0.93 cm), seeds/pod (6.57), herbage yield (75.64 t ha-1), dry matter yield (20.06 t ha-1) and seed yield (0.49 t ha-1) were obtained from the cultivar Marina. The leaflet length ranged from 1.65 to 2.08 cm and the raceme length from 3.15 to 4.38 cm in the alfalfa cultivars. The highest 1000-seed weights (2.42-2.49 g) were found in cultivars Marina and Sitel. The heritability values of main stem height, main stem diameter, leaflet length and width, leaf/stem ratio, racemes/main stem, raceme length, seeds/pod, 1000-seed weight, herbage yield, dry matter yield and seed yield were calculated as 91.0%, 97.6%, 81.8%, 88.8%, 90.4%, 28.3%, 99.0%, 99.2%, 88.0%, 97.2%, 99.6% and 95.4%, respectively.
The dry matter and moisture contents of the aboveground vegetative organs and kernels of four maize hybrids were studied in Martonvásár at five harvest dates, with four replications per hybrid. The dry matter yield per hectare of the kernels and other plant organs were investigated in order to obtain data on the optimum date of harvest for the purposes of biogas and silage production.It was found that the dry mass of the aboveground vegetative organs, both individually and in total, did not increase after silking. During the last third of the ripening period, however, a significant reduction in the dry matter content was sometimes observed as a function of the length of the vegetation period. The data suggest that, with the exception of extreme weather conditions or an extremely long vegetation period, the maximum dry matter yield could be expected to range from 22–42%, depending on the vegetation period of the variety. The harvest date should be chosen to give a kernel moisture content of above 35% for biogas production and below 35% for silage production. In this phenophase most varieties mature when the stalks are still green, so it is unlikely that transport costs can be reduced by waiting for the vegetative mass to dry.