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Words like aggression, violence, and violent actions usually carry destructive meanings. People tend to forget their constructive culturally determined meanings. In spite of this, it can be argued that aggressive feelings, hatred, anger, verbal aggression, threatening behaviour, assault, inflicting pain, injuring or ritual killing of men, or the fighting of war are all part of our lives as much as feasts and rituals that bind communities together, or the command to love of different religious ideologies. In the 16th century there was a definitive turn in judging the body in public. It meant that public attention gradually turned from the corpse of Christ to the bodies of the thieves. The two thieves were brought down from their crosses, laid out on the dissecting table, or their bodies were torn apart during fights. Evil-doers became part of scientific cognition. The antisocial public enemy became a hero of the community in the popular literature and historic stories. The conserved and stuffed bodies of robbers and killers were displayed in the first museums of the Early Modern Age, as a main attraction. Rebels were cut into pieces as part of a baroque play on the killing floor to display the parts in buildings of the town. The body of the everyday killer became a spectacle, and the interest in the mind of the solitary killer developed medical thinking on the human spirit.

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Both demonology and medical learning wanted to define what material proofs they were to use in order to alleviate the politically rooted disease symptoms of the early modern period. Finding the proper therapeutic treatment required the appropriate description of the pathology, revealing the causes and consequences and making the right diagnosis. Several key questions were formulated concerning these requirements. Most of the questions formulated in this way are based on a formal syllogism that meets the normative requirements of disciplines that include law, theology and medicine and whose formal elements became valid within the systems of fulfilment of these disciplines themselves. In this paper I shall attempt to introduce the scholarly literature based on these formal logical criteria that address material proofs, omens, prophecies, oracles and miracles. I shall then outline how this debate in European secondary literature has been received in Hungarian scholarship.

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2017 :155).We know from historical folklore analyses that in the bewitchment narratives of early modern Hungarian witchcraft trials harming utterances usually receive the speech act label of “threat” from speakers. 14 “I know for sure that Mrs. Harcsás

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Abstract

The so-called holy crown of Hungary has been one of the most important elements in early modern Hungarian political thought, which resulted in countless images from medieval till modern times. This article treats the connection between the various crown images and descriptions of the exterior of the crown and the change of the political meaning of the crown between 1572 and 1665. Using a constructivist method of research, an attempt is made to answer the question of how the crown was depicted in art, what was the function and meaning of this depiction, how this image and function of the crown changed, and how this change can be explained. The focus of the author is on the political developments around 1608 in Hungary, in which the crown, its meaning and image played a dominant role. The function of the crown changed between 1572 and 1608 from a symbol of legitimacy of royal Habsburg power to that of the political claims of the estates of the Kingdom of Hungary. This can be observed in the work of István Illésházy, Elias Berger, János Jessenius, Lucas Kilian, Wolfgang Kilian, Péter Révay, Christoph Lackner, Márton Schödel, Hieronymus Ortelius and others. The change of use, image and meaning of the crown can be explained by the “visual turn”, which according to Peter Burke occurred in the beginning of the 17th century. The attention of historians of that period was drawn to artefacts and images of the past which were used as sources of political legitimacy and incorporated in political thought. The change of the image and meaning of the crown in Hungary was thus a part of a European development in the history of art and political thought.

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, Initiation. The Church and Folk Culture in Early Modern Hungary]. Budapest : MTA-ELTE Folklór Szövegelemzési Kutatócsoport . Canonul Ortodoxiei I. (Canonul apostolic al primelor secole) 2008 Sibiu : Deisis - Stavropoleos . 909 - 1032 . Frauhammer

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Animal remains from the multi-period site of Hajdúnánás-Fürjhalom-dűlő

Part II. Finds from the Árpád period (10th–13th centuries)

Author: E. Gál

— Archaeological Investigations in Hungary 2004. Budapest 2005, 228. Petényi 1994 = S. Petényi : Games and Toys in Medieval and Early Modern Hungary. Krems 1994. Palády-Kovács 2004 = A

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. Bárth , Dániel 2010 Benedikció és exorcizmus a kora újkori Magyarországon [Benediction and Exorcism in Early Modern Hungary]. Budapest-Pécs : L'Harmattan-PTE Néprajz-Kulturális Antropológia Tanszék . Fontes Ethnologiae Hungaricae IX. Bárth

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Péter, Katalin, 1987. Az erdélyi országgyűlés a kora újkori magyar fejlődésben [The Transylvanian Assembly in Early Modern Hungarian Development]. In: Kálmán Benda and Katalin Péter, Az országgyûlések a kora újkori magyar történelemben [The National

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(eds) From Hunyadi to Rákóczi: War and Society in Late Medieval and Early Modern Hungary (Brooklyn, New York: Brooklyn College of The City University of New York), 297–313. Péter K

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[Chronicle of the Magyars] . Budapest : Helikon Kiadó – Alexandra Kiadó . H. Németh, István 2001 Háború és népesség a kora újkori Magyarországon (16–17. század) [War and Population in Early Modern Hungary (16–17th Centuries)] . In Történeti

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