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Abstract  

CREWS is a regional network of five high volume air samplers located around the Gulf of Mexico designed to detect extremely low level releases of airborne radioactivity from the nuclear power plants being constructed in Cuba. Four of the stations are currently operational. The CREWS stations use a high efficiency particulate filter to sample aerosols larger than about 10 nm. Aerosols are collected continuously for a week at a flow rate of 515 cubic meters per hour and then counted on a high purity germanium (HPGe) spectroscopy system. The first station began operation in October, 1998. This paper reports the concentration ranges and seasonal trends of the natural radionuclides 7Be and 210Pb detected by the CREWS system. Anthropogenic measurements are also provided and possible sources are discussed. Finally, the paper examines the average minimum detectable concentrations achieved by the systems and predicts the level of release that this system can detect from the Cuban reactors.

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Nowadays natural disasters phenomena as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis or earthquakes, are still difficult to prevent. Based on signaling of the phenomenon imminent appearance in the destructive area, important limitations in human losses and material damages will be carried out. For that  reason, WARNING turned into a key objective, both in theoretical and practical research.  For the earthquakes, warning intervals are nevertheless very short - seconds to maximum one minute (Mexico City case). Even if the time window is reduced, automated decision measures are possible to establish in case of an well organized system, mainly for: protection of dangerous chemical units and oil installations; shutdown valves of the natural gas pipelines to prevent fire hazard; protection of nuclear power plants and other high-risk nuclear objectives; electrical insulating of the power distribution network systems; alerting of emergency services, alerting of civil protection, and particularly of  civil population; protection of railway transportation systems etc.  In Romania, the major seismic risk zone is located in Vrancea region. The earthquakes occurring in this area are the main sources of the seismic hazard on the Romania territory.  Seismotectonic characteristics of the Vrancea region offered the opportunity to create and develop a rapid seismic warning system. This system is simple, reasonably low-priced and robust and allows warning in an approximately 25 seconds time window for Bucharest. Warning signal obtained will be issued at the responsible factors and specific users in order to control automated blocking of the installations and to carry out the required protection actions.

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.: Early-warning system on new psychoactive substances: Operating guidelines. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, 2007. EMCDDA–Europol: 2011 Annual report on the implementation of Council

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river banks is a significant research task for the development of early warning systems (e.g.,  Fathani et al. 2016 ; Intrieri and Gigli 2016 ; Greco and Pagano 2017 ; Wen et al. 2017 ). The high, steep banks along the west side of the River

Open access

Establishment of an effective early warning system can make the company operators make relevant decisions as soon as possible when finding the crisis, improve the operating results and financial condition of enterprise, and can also make investors avoid or reduce investment losses. This paper applies the partial least-squares logistic regression model for the analysis on early warning of enterprise financial distress in consideration of quite sensitive characteristics of common logistic model for the multicollinearity. The data of real estate industry listed companies in China are used to compare and analyze the early warning of financial distress by using the logistic model and the partial least-squares logistic model, respectively. The study results show that compared with the common logistic regression model, the applicability of partial least-squares logistic model is stronger due to its eliminating multicollinearity problem among various early warning indicators.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Anita Réka Tóth
,
Zsuzsanna Hideg
, and
László Institóris

578 583 Újváry, I.: Overview of psychoactive plants. Personal communication presented at the 9th Annual Meeting of the REITOX Early Warning System Network, organised by the

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A genetikai adatok szerepe a járványok elleni küzdelemben

Genetic data in the fight against pandemics

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Ágnes Becsei
,
Orsolya Anna Pipek
,
Péter Pollner
, and
István Csabai

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19-járvány alatt bizonyossá vált, hogy az adattudományok, az adatok gyors megosztása és a nemzetközi összefogás a hatékony járványkezelés kulcsfontosságú eszközei. A járvány előtt létrejött Újonnan Felbukkanó fertőző betegségek Obszervatóriuma (Versatile Emerging infectious disease Observatory, VEO) nevű nemzetközi konzorcium célja egy olyan monitorozó rendszer kiépítése, amely a potenciálisan veszélyes kórokozókat még az előtt azonosítja, mielőtt azok tömeges megbetegedéseket okoznának, lehetőséget adva ezzel a gyors reagálásra. A járványok megelőzésére és kezelésére létrejött nemzetközi együttműködésekben, így a VEO-ban is a kórokozók, vagy a fertőzésnek kitett személyek genetikai szekvencia adatai kiemelkedő fontosságúak. Az ilyen típusú adatok kezelésével kapcsolatban az Európai Unióban többek között a Nagojai Jegyzőkönyv és a GDPR fogalmaz meg elveket, szabályokat.

Summary. Data science is proved to be a key tool in the fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, but it requires a huge amount of data shared between international research groups. The Versatile Emerging infectious disease Observatory (VEO) EU collaboration was established to generate and distribute high quality data for an evidence-based early warning system for emerging infectious diseases. Through an iterative process between data scientists, disease experts, social scientists and citizen scientists, a collaborative platform will be created for storing, secure sharing and analyses of traditional and new data sources. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized genomic research. This versatile technology is broadly applicable to pathogens and human hosts. Rapid sharing of pathogen genetic resources, including physical samples of cultured pathogens and additionally genetic sequencing data of pathogens, is crucial in support of research and outbreak response. Access to genetic resources is regulated by the Nagoya protocol which is an internationally binding treaty to ensure equal sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. So far the Nagoya protocol has been applied only to biological samples, but digital data from genetic sequencing doesn’t necessarily fall under the treaty. Effects of diseases can differ based on genetic backgrounds, as certain gene variants may provide protection against or susceptibility to viral diseases. Human genomic data is an important resource for medical research. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) lists identifiable human genetic data as sensitive, which is a subset of personal data. Sharing and analysis of this kind of data are strictly regulated and they are also subject to ethical challenges. These concerns become less pronounced when analyzing environmental samples like sewage. Samples collected from wastewater treatment plants can be used as pooled samples, containing naturally anonymized genetic information of the human population, near the wastewater treatment plant.

Open access

A Somogy Megyei Kaposi Mór Oktató Kórház által bevezetett gyors reagálású rendszer hatása a kórházi mortalitásra

Effect of rapid response system on hospital mortality, implemented by Somogy County Kaposi Mór Teaching Hospital

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
János Fogas
,
Rita Koroseczné Pavlin
,
Krisztina Szabó
,
Eszter Héra
,
Imre Repa
, and
Mariann Moizs

-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 365: 2091–2097. 7 Parshuram CS, Dryden-Palmer K, Farrell C, et al. Effect of a pediatric early warning system on all-cause mortality in

Open access

A szennyvíz alapú epidemiológia jelentősége a COVID–19 járványban és azon túl

The importance of wastewater-based epidemiology in the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Tamás Pándics
,
Eszter Róka
,
Bernadett Khayer
,
Zoltán Kis
,
Luca Bella Kovács
,
Nóra Magyar
,
Tibor Málnási
,
Orsolya Oravecz
,
Bernadett Pályi
,
Eszter Schuler
, and
Márta Vargha

Összefoglaló. A szennyvízalapú epidemiológia módszere a jelenlegi világjárványban egyre inkább előtérbe kerül. Mivel a szennyvízhálózatot szinte mindenki használja, ezzel a módszerrel gyorsan és olcsón lehet reprezentatív egészségügyi információhoz jutni, az így keletkező adatok pedig támogatást és visszajelzést nyújthatnak a döntéshozatalban. A Nemzeti Népegészségügyi Központ 2020 júniusa óta működteti a COVID–19 előrejelző rendszert. A mintavételek hetente történnek Budapest három szennyvíztisztítójából, valamint a megyeszékhelyekről. A kapott adatok hazánkban is előrejelzik az esetszám alakulását, az eredmények gyors kommunikációja pedig lehetővé teszi a járványhelyzetre történő felkészülést. A szennyvízalapú epidemiológia alkalmazása a jövőben más területeken is megfontolandó hazánkban is.

Summary. Wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) is an emerging method in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Since almost everyone uses the sewerage system, wastewater is technically a composite sample representing the entire population of the area serviced by a wastewater plant. This community sample contains pathogens and compounds excreted by the human body through feces or urine, and can be used to obtain information on the health status of the community. It was successfully used previously for confirming the eradication of poliovirus and tracking legal and illegal drug consumption.

The etiological agent of COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus is an enveloped, single strand RNA coronavirus. Although it is a respiratory virus, it is also shed in feces both in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Wastewater therefore can be used to estimate outbreak trends and support outbreak management.

Wastewater monitoring efforts in Hungary started in June 2020, first in Budapest, then gradually extended to a national surveillance system. Weekly samples are collected in the three wastewater treatment plants servicing Budapest, and from every county seat. The analyzed 22 samples represent approximately 40 % of the population. Raw sewage samples are centrifuged to remove the debris and concentrated by membrane ultrafiltration. RNA is extracted from the concentrate and SARS-CoV-2 is quantified by RT-qPCR. Results are normalized to Enterococcus counts to correct for the bias of dilution from precipitation.

The first results in June reflected the decline of the first wave of the outbreak. During the summer, viral RNA concentrations were low, mainly below the limit of detection. The increase of RNA in the sewage preceded the resurge of cases by 2 weeks. Trends of viral concentration followed the same pattern as the number of infections in the second and third wave. SARS-CoV in sewage shows statistically significant association with the number of new cases in the following weeks, thus it can be used as an early warning system.

Results are communicated weekly to the governance board responsible for outbreak management, or more frequently in case of outstanding results or when it is necessary for decision support. Weekly information is also made available to the public. To inform the public, concentration categories (low, medium, elevated and high) were defined, representing orders of magnitude of the viral RNA concentration. Trends (increasing, stagnating or decreasing) are also indicated.

The establishment of a long-term wastewater surveillance system would provide an opportunity for early recognition of future emerging infections, tracking seasonal influenza, drug use or even the detection of certain bioterror attacks. It would be an important addition to maintaining the health and safety of the Hungarian population.

Open access

. 64 75 90 FAO, 2001. Handbook for Defining and Setting Up a Food Security Information and Early Warning System. FAO Agricultural Policy and Economic

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