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negligible. Thus, at earthquake loading, failure happens rapidly due to loss of friction and contact between soil particles as a result to PWP generation inside soil pores. When the mitigation process was executed there were an additional strength parameter

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Low velocity surface layers can significantly increase ground accelerations during earthquakes. When saturated sandy sediments are present, because of pore pressure increase, decrease of soil strength or even liquefaction can occur. Some volume change follows the dissipation of excess pore pressure after the earthquake resulting surface settlements. To determine the liquefaction probability and post-liquefaction settlement is very important for critical facilities e.g. for the site of Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. Pore pressure increase and so the liquefaction and surface settlements depend on the characteristics of seismic loading and soil parameters. To quantify the extent of these phenomena is rather difficult. Uncertainties arise both from the probabilistic nature of the earthquake loading and from the simplifications of soil models as well. In the paper, the most important semi-empirical and dynamical effective stress methods for liquefaction and post-liquefaction settlement assessment are summarized. Most significant contributors to the uncertainties are highlighted, and particular examples through the investigation of Paks NPP site are given. Finally, a probabilistic procedure is proposed where the uncertainties will be taken into account by applying a logic tree methodology. At the same time, the uncertainties are reduced by the use of site-specific UHRS and stress reduction factors.

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Research 2004 60 601 620 Elnashai A. S. Local ductility in steel structures subjected to earthquake loading

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, Paper No. 1024. Elnashai A. S., Elghazouli A. Y., Danesh-Ashtiani F. A. Response of semi-rigid steel frames to cyclic and earthquake loads, Journal of Structural Engineering , Vol. 124, No. 8, 1998, pp. 857

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earthquake load , American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , Vol. 1 , No. 2 , 2008 , pp. 121 – 125 . [5] Von Estorf , O. , Stamos , A. A. , Beskos , D. E

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suspension systems control: a review ,” Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. , vol. 2 , no. 2 , pp. 46 – 54 , 2013 . [2] R. Debbarma and S. Hazari , “ Mass distribution of multiple tuned mass dampers for vibration control of structures under earthquake

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this study demonstrate that properly built frames will function effectively under earthquake loads. Using SAP2000, Deep and Raju [ 2 ] used non-linear static analysis (pushover analysis) to comprehend the behavior of a G+9 multistory residential

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experimental and numerical studies investigated the behavior of composite concrete-steel plate shear walls under earthquake loading [ 8 ]-[ 10 ]. In the current study, the existing buildings were strengthened by introducing a composite concrete-steel plate

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histories. Various cyclic loading protocols have been proposed in the literature for different types of structural and non-structural components [ 2 ]. The accumulation of damage in reinforced concrete elements due to earthquake loading is a complex process

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to be able to produce accurately more complex hysteretic curves for earthquake load histories. It was confirmed that this model has the capability to imitate the TOSS test conditions, as it shows good agreement with modulus degradation and hysteretic

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