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Three-dimensional gravity modeling has been performed for the Eastern Mediterranean including the northeastern Egyptian off-shore area. The gravity models and seismic profiles indicate that a transition from two layer continental crust to a simple layer oceanic crust takes a place along the Levantine margin. The transition along three profiles is located beyond the north African continental margin and it is quite gradual. The crust under the Levantine basin is typically oceanic and slightly thin with 13 km thickness, however it is typical continental under the Egyptian off-shore and having 30 km thickness. The obtained results reflect a large sedimentary sequence of 14 km under the Levantine basin. Since the sediments recovered by the Oceanic Drilling Program Leg160 in the eastern Mediterranean ranged from Pleistocene to Cretaceous, this reflects fairly high sedimentation rate. Distribution of recent earthquake foci indicates that almost all earthquakes occurred along the western and central segments of the Cyprean arc while they completely disappear along the eastern segment. This means that collision between Cyprus and the Eratosthenes seamount is marked by seismic activity and clearly affects the shape of the Cyprean arc. This collision represents a transition zone between active compression and probable subduction in the western segment and diffuse transtension through the eastern part of the arc. Incipient collision between Cyprus and Eratosthenes seamount probably began in Pleistocene time.

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Concentrations of elements and ions, measured in aerosol samples collected during 1993 were investigated to identify sources and source composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. The factor analysis have shown that Eastern Mediterranean aerosol is a four-component system, including a crustal component, long-range transported pollution component, a marine component and a local pollution component. Main anthropogenic component, which reaches to the region by long-range transport accounts for 70%-90% of the concentrations of Zn, Se, NO3-, nss-SO4 2-, NH4 + and smaller fractions of V, Sb, Cr and Mn concentrations. According to the quantitative analysis of local and Saharan dust components, the most promising marker elements to distinguish Saharan dust from local soil were found to be Cr, Nd, Mg and Cs as they have significantly different compositions in the local soil and Saharan dust.

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Neutron activation analysis was used to determine up to 30 elements in the pumice layers from the Minoan eruption at Thera (Santorini, Greece). Mt Pilato (Lipari, Italy) and in alluvial pumice from coasts of the Eastern Mediterranean region. The morphologically well distinguishable layers of the Minoan pumice were found to be of nearly similar composition in respect to the elements determined and their distribution patterns could therefore be used to identify a sample as Santorinian or not. Additionally, this method was applied to pumice lumps found during archaeological excavations in the Nile delta, Egypt. The results showed that two of the three Egyptian samples are products of the Minoan eruption at Thera and therefore chronologically useful. A second group of pumices collected at Antalya (Turkey), Crete (Greece) and also in Egypt was found to have a distinctly different composition and is therefore related to another volcanic event.

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In this study, some natural Vicia L. species growing naturally in eastern Mediterranean and southern Aegean Regions have been investigated morphological and cytotaxonomic point of view. Morphology, chromosome number and morphometries of the 9 taxa belonging to the Vicia L. genus including Vicia peregrina, V. lutea var. hirta, V. anatolica, V. hybrida, V. grandiflora var. grandiflora, V. grandiflora var. dissecta, V. cuspidata, V. sativa subsp. sativa, V. sativa subsp. nigra var. segatalis have been studied by using karyological and numerical taxonomic techniques. Data obtained chromosome measurements were analysed by using cluster analysis. The chromosome number of studied Vicia species have been found as 2n = 10, 12 and 14. The member of Vicia section, related taxa were compared with respect to their chromosomal and morphological characteristics. Some karyological relationships among the studied Vicia taxa were discussed with help of taxonomic history and evolutionary data.

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Producing forage maize ( Zea mays L.) in twin-row planting pattern has been attempted in past years. This research was performed to determine effects of planting patterns and densities on yields of forage maize hybrids. We also examined other plant characteristics associated with forage yield under second crop conditions in Hatay, East Mediterranean region of Turkey, during 2003 and 2004. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design in a split-split-plot arrangement with three replications. The planting patterns of twin row (55:20 cm), conventional row (75 cm) and narrow row (50 cm) were main plots, the plant densities (80,000, 100,000 and 120,000 plants ha −1 ) were split-plots, and the hybrids (PR-1550, MAVERIK and DK-585) were split-split plots. Forage and dry matter yields were significantly affected by planting patterns, plant densities and maize hybrids. Our results revealed the advantage of twin-row planting pattern over conventional and narrow row plantings at all plant densities. Twin row planting out-yielded conventional row (16% more forage and 10.2% more dry matter yield) and narrow-row (7.9% more forage and 5.9% more dry matter yield) plantings. Twin-row planting pattern may be a profitable production technique for forage maize producers.

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Technologies that were assumed to be critical or emerging in Materials, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering were combined from different sources. These were compared to recent data and trends based on publications as well as patents in these fields. Some of these technologies were found to be non-critical or non-emergent. Top-ten lists of critical and emerging technologies were derived using simple statistical tools and easily accessible databases. The present methodology is proposed as an effective procedure for priority setting in science and technology policy making.

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In this paper we study I-approximation properties of certain class of linear positive operators. The two main tools used in this paper are I-convergence and Ditzian-Totik modulus of smoothness. Furthermore, we define q-Lupaş-Durrmeyer operators and give local and global approximation results for such operators.

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The paper analyses the long-run (steady-state) output and price stability of a small, open economy which adopts a “crawling-peg” type of exchange-rate regime in the presence of various kinds of random shocks. Analytical and simulation results suggest that with the exception of money demand shocks, an exchange rate policy which involves a relatively higher rate of indexation of the exchange rate to price level is likely to lead to the worsening of price stability for all types of shocks. On the other hand, the impact of adopting such a policy on output stability depends on the type of the shock; for policy shocks to the exchange rate and shocks to output demand, output stability is worsened whereas for the shocks to risk premium of domestic assets, supply price of domestic output and the wage rate, better output stability is achieved in the long run.

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Tourism-Led Growth (TLG) hypothesis results are inconclusive for Mediterranean countries in the relevant literature. This study contributes to the literature by employing the bounds test for co-integration and Granger causality tests to investigate level relationship and the direction of causality between international tourism and economic growth in the case of Malta. Results reveal that a long-run equilibrium relationship exists between international tourism and economic growth in the case of Malta. On the other hand, Granger causality test results suggest that both the Tourism-Led Growth and output-driven tourism hypotheses can be inferred for Malta since there is bidirectional causation between international tourism and economic growth.

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