( Langham et al., 2016 ) and suicidal behavior ( Karlsson & Håkansson, 2018 ). Eatingdisorders (EDs) have an estimated lifetime prevalence at around 1%; around 0.2% for anorexia nervosa (AN), 0.8% bulimia nervosa (BN), and 2.2% binge eatingdisorder (BED
an overuse injury).
There is a strong link between exercise dependence and eatingdisorders, with eatingdisorders being the most common disorder to co-occur with exercise dependence ( Freimuth, Moniz, & Kim, 2011 ). Freimuth et al. ( 2011
Amianto , F. , Ercole , R. , Abbate Daga , G. , & Fassino , S. ( 2015 ). Exploring Parental Bonding in BED and Non-BED Obesity Compared with Healthy Controls: Clinical, Personality and Psychopathology Correlates. European EatingDisorders Review
tools ( Sussmann, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011 ).
It is also well known that EXD is more prevalent among patients with eatingdisorders who use excessive exercise to control weight ( Bratland&Sanda et al., 2010 ; Cook, Hausenblas, Crosby, Cao
etiology and maintenance of several psychological disorders, including eatingdisorders (EDs) and gambling disorder (GD). Even though there is no high prevalence of the co-occurrence of both disorders ( Potenza et al., 2019 ), several commonalities in risk
common comorbidity deserves intensive investigation.
This pilot data from patients attending an outpatient eatingdisorder program may offer an opportunity for exploration of both inheritable traits and the environmental, genetic expression
received significant empirical support in recent years ( Dell’Osso, Allen, Altamura, Buoli, & Hollander, 2008 ; Di Nicola et al., 2014 ; Petruccelli et al., 2014 ). Behavioral addictions like GD, as well as other pathologies, such as eatingdisorders (EDs