In this article the author defines shadow education, as only the most important
examination subjects’ out-of-school, for-fee education activities belong here.
After this he introduces some of the theoretical debates and important research
tendencies, topics, methods and results of the first two decades of the field.
Then he offers a new approach to reach a better understanding of shadow
education and other educational phenomena, and two practical methods to reduce
the negative effects of shadow education: he argues for starting educational
behavior reseach, also for training so-called educational space specialist, and
to introduce a well-balanced educational voucher system.
sophisticated understanding of at least some dimensions of shadow education and related phenomena via ‘educationalbehaviouralscience’. This domain, like behavioural economics and other behavioural sciences, integrates psychological, sociological, economic