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63 605 610 Nikaido, H.: Multidrug efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria. J Bacteriol 178 , 5853-5859 (1996). Multidrug

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Seyedeh Marzieh Jabbari Shiadeh, Ali Hashemi, Fatemeh Fallah, Parnian Lak, Leila Azimi, and Marjan Rashidan

, relatively little is known about drug efflux pumps in E. faecalis [ 9 ]. The most extensively studied efflux pumps in E. faecalis are a homolog of NorA, EmeA , a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), and efrAB belonging to the ATP

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Zahra Meshkat, Himen Salimizand, Yousef Amini, Davood Mansury, Abolfazl Rafati Zomorodi, Zoleikha Avestan, Azad Jamee, Jamal Falahi, Hadi Farsiani, and Azizollah Mojahed

A. baumannii are efflux pumps and ribosome protection. Among tet genes, tetA , tetB , tetA(39) and tetH genes have been recognized as efflux pump genes, by which tetracycline and doxycycline are pumped out of A. baumannii . Moreover, tet

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Seyedeh Marzieh Jabbari Shiadeh, Leila Azimi, Taher Azimi, Ali Pourmohammad, Mehdi Goudarzi, Bahare Gholami Chaboki, and Ali Hashemi

resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracyclines, macrolides, ampicillin and chloramphenicol [ 12 ]. One of the significant mechanisms of tolerance to biocides are efflux pumps that are included in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the

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efflux pump has been described in A. baumannii . It is a putative major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter, which is encoded by abaQ gene. This efflux pump is the first to mediate quinolone resistance among A. baumannii isolates. Moreover, it

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isolates of P. aeruginosa are mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the genes encoding the FQ-target proteins ( gyrA and parC ), and over-expression of specific efflux pumps [ 6–8 ]. It has been additionally shown that efflux pump

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OprD porin, efflux pumps system overexpression, chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase production, and target modifications. However, carbapenemases have an extended substrate spectrum to penicillins and cephalosporins, besides carbapenems. Therefore

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Márió Gajdács, Marianna Ábrók, Andrea Lázár, Laura Jánvári, Ákos Tóth, Gabriella Terhes, and Katalin Burián

effective therapeutic alternatives available [ 5, 6 ]. Carbapenem resistance may develop through a variety of cellular mechanisms: alteration in membrane permeability and porin loss (e.g., ΔOmpK in Klebsiella pneumoniae ), overexpression of efflux pumps

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Amaral, L., Viveiros, M., Engi, H. et al.: Comparison of multidrug resistant efflux pumps of bacteria and cancer cells with respect to the same inhibitory agents. In Vivo, 2007, 21 , 237–244. Engi H

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3488 3497 Costa SS, Viveiros M, Amaral L, Couto I: Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus : an Update. Open Microbiol J 7, 59–71 (2013

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