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The Hutterites and Habans produced coloured-glazed, mostly blue- and yellow-coloured vessels alongside their white-glazed faience ware. However, the production technology of the coloured-glazed vessels, specifically the nature of the glaze, is a matter of debate among scholars. Both coloured tin glaze and coloured engobe covered with a transparent lead glaze were thought to have been applied on the ceramics.

Around 140 objects of blue-glazed Hutterite and Haban museum objects and archaeological artefacts were analysed using a handheld XRF spectrometer. In addition, small fragments of selected ceramics were studied by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA).

According to the XRF measurements the blue glaze of all except one of the studied Hutterite and Haban ceramics contains tin in variable amounts (from about 0.015 wt% up to 13 wt%). The EMPA technique showed that tin in the form of tin oxide opacifier was deliberately added to the single-layered alkali– lead or lead–alkali glaze. These data confirm that the tin glaze technique was used during production of blue-glazed ceramics, and in this respect they can be regarded as faience. The blue glaze of the Haban vessels produced by a “mining town” workshop contains tin in very low concentrations (Sn <0.2 wt% by XRF), therefore the opacity of the glaze is mainly caused by the abundant silica and arsenate particles.

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. Geology of Hungary. 317 Montel, J.-M., S. Foret, M. Veschambre, C. Nicollet, A. Provost 1996: Electron microprobe daring of monazite. - Chem. Geol., 131, pp. 37

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Western Mecsek, Görcsöny Hill, Mecsekalja zone and Mórágy region based on petrographical, electron-microprobe and geochemical investigations). - Ph.D. theses, Eötvös University. Manuscript in Hungarian, p. 182. A

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Abstract  

Improvements of a CAMECA IMS 300 ion microanalyzer are described: ion source, resolution, ion detector and counting system. Comparison with the performances of an electron microprobe is presented. Examples of application are given.

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Abstract  

PIXE analysis method is applied to archaeometry problems. Advantages and disadvantages are emphasized. Some examples are presented which show the difficulties; especially important heterogeneities of ceramics, old coins and metals restrain from the use of this technique: other analysis systems, less expensive, like electron microprobe or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, are compared with conventional PIXE method. The importance of proton microprobe is explained.

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Abstract  

A new instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis procedure to quantitatively determine titanium, barium, and bromine in obsidian with improved sensitivity has been developed. The advantage of epithermal activation for Ti, Ba, and Br is demonstrated with multiple geological standards and the ability to determine arsenic in obsidian is demonstrated. The results for titanium are compared to previous electron-microprobe results for Kenyan obsidian.

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Abstract  

Sand samples collected on the beaches of the “radioactive” Brazilian town of Guarapari were first separated by flotation in bromoform and successively divided into various magnetic fractions with a Franz isodynamic separator. Concentrations of background radionuclides in samples of monazite, ilmenite, and zircon were determined by a γ-ray spectrometer. Chemical composition of monazite, ilmenite, and magnetite were assessed by means of an electron microprobe. Monazite resulted to be relatively rich in ThO2 whose abundance ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 (wt%).

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: J. Kučera, J. Novák, K. Kranda, J. Poncar, I. Krausová, L. Soukal, O. Cunin, and M. Lang

Abstract  

We determined 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 19 Angkor temples and from an old and a new quarry using INAA. We also characterized the sandstone samples with conventional microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Using cluster analysis, we found no straightforward correlation between the chemical/petrological properties of the sandstones and a presumed period of individual temples construction. The poor correlation may result either from the inherent inhomogeneity of sandstone or just reflect the diversity of quarries that supplied building blocks for the construction of any particular temple.

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Abstract  

Potsherds were analyzed chemically by four different techniques. Results are compared for many elements. The effect of temper appears as a problem because of the inhomogeneity of the bulk. PIXE and neutron activation are powerful and complementary methods to obtain element concentrations for proveniance studies. Also scanning electron microscopy and the electron microprobe are very useful to detect and analyze the tempers. Thus it is possible to gather data on the potter technology. In conclusion the use of a proton microprobe seems to be a promising instrument for versatile analyses.

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Abstract  

57Fe Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and electron microprobe measurements were performed on Fe–Ni–Cr alloys coatings electrochemically deposited at different times (from 1 to 29 minutes). Significant differences have been found among the Mössbauer spectra of samples examined. The changes are also reflected by the hyperfine field distribution derived from the spectra. The observed changes can be associated with changes in the magnetic anisotropy and in the short range ordering in correlated to the duration of electrochemical deposition.

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