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. N., Elliott, J. M., Gardner, J. W. (1997) Electronic noses and their applications in the food industry. Food Technology , 51(12), 44–48. Gardner J. W. Electronic noses and

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, Spanevello A, Resta O, Willard NP, Vink TJ, Rabe KF, Bel EH, Sterk PJ: An electronic nose in the discrimination of patients with asthma and controls. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 120, 856–862 (2007) Sterk P

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analysis with electronic nose and headspace fingerprint MS for tomato aroma profiling . Postharvest Biol. Tec. , 36 , 143 – 155 . Berna , A

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., Tan, T. & Gardner, J. W. (1994): Monitoring the stability of perfume and body odours with an 'Electronic nose'. Perfumer and Flavourist , 19 , 11-19. Monitoring the stability of perfume and body odours with an 'Electronic

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The utility of chemosensor array (EN) signals of head-space volatiles of aerobically stored pork cutlets as a non-invasive technique for monitoring their microbiological load was studied during storage at 4, 8 and 12 °C, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the meat samples was determined by standard total aerobic plate counts (TAPC) and colony count of selectively estimated Pseudomonas (PS) spp., the predominant aerobic spoilage bacteria. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose measurements were principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model correlation between microbial loads and EN signal responses, the degree of bacteriological spoilage, independently of the temperature of the refrigerated storage. Sensor selection techniques were applied to reduce the dimensionality and more robust calibration models were computed by determining few individual sensors having the smallest cross correlations and highest correlations with the reference data. Correlations between the predicted and “real” values were given on cross-validated data from both data reduced models and for full calibrations using the 23 sensor elements. At the same time, sensorial quality of the raw cutlets was noted subjectively on faultiness of the odour and colour, and drip formation of the samples. These preliminary studies indicated that the electronic nose technique has a potential to detect bacteriological spoilage earlier or at the same time as olfactory quality deterioration.

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Abstract  

The effect of different relative humidity (RH) on the response of a six-polymer coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor based electronic nose (EN) was investigated, RH 30 and 50% respectively. Increases in the sensor responses were observed for an increase in RH. A stainless steel pre-concentration tube (PCT) containing Porapak-S and a nichrome heating element was developed to minimise the effect and allow for chromatographic pre-separation. Breakthrough times of chemical compounds through the PCT were experimentally determined and used to select a mixture of water and toluene as a suitable sample for pre-separation. The PCT was capable of separating the water from the toluene and the EN was competent at evaluating the concentration of toluene in the solution.

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Abstract  

An electronic nose utilising an array of six-bulk acoustic wave polymer coated Piezoelectric Quartz (PZQ) sensors has been developed. The nose was presented with 346 samples of fresh edible oil headspace volatiles, generated at 45°C. Extra virgin olive (EVO), Non-virgin olive oil (OI) and Sunflower oil (SFO), were used over a period of 30 days. The sensor responses were then analysed producing an architecture for the Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBF). It was found that the RBF results were excellent, giving classifications of above 99% for the vegetable oil test samples.

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brief history of electronic noses. Sensors Actuators B: Chemical, 18, 210–211. Bartlett P.N. A brief history of electronic noses Sensors Actuators B

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: István Dalmadi, Dávid Kántor, Kai Wolz, Katalin Polyák-Fehér, Klára Pásztor-Huszár, József Farkas, and András Fekete

., Gardner, J. W., Bartlett, P. N. (1996) Electronic noses — development and future prospects. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry , 15(9), 486–493. Bartlett P. N. Electronic noses

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. 33 441 446 Hodgins, D. & Conover, D. (1995): Evaluating the electronic nose. Perfumer & Flavourist , 20 , 1

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