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This study was to examine the effects of four fungal polysaccharides, namely exo-polysaccharide (EPS), water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxideextracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), and hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS) obtained from the endophytic fungus Bionectra pityrodes Fat6, on the sprout growth and flavonoids production of Fagopyrum tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and functional metabolites accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the polysaccharide species along with its treatment dose. With application of 150 mg/l of EPS, 150 mg/l of WPS and 200 mg/l of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yield of buckwheat sprouts was effectively increased to 49.18 mg/(100 sprouts), 50.54 mg/(100 sprouts), and 52.27 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.57- to 1.66-fold in comparison with the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed the accumulation of bioactive flavonoids resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by fungal polysaccharide treatments. It could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts applied with specific fungal elicitors.

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Davis, K. R. and Ausubel, F. M. (1989): Characterisation of elicitor-induced defense responses in suspension-cultured cells of Arabidopsis. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 2, 363

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Chappell, J., VonLanken, C. and Vogeli, U. (1991): Elicitor-inducible 3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl Coenzyme-A reductase activity is required for sequiterpene accumulation in tobacco cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiol. 97, 693

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and behavioral addictions include cortico-striatal-limbic circuitry ( Kilts, Gross, Ely, & Drexler, 2004 ; Kober et al., 2016 ; Potenza et al., 2012 ). Multiple studies have identified gender-related differences in craving using cue-elicited craving

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647 656 Ayers, A. R., Ebel, J., Valent, B. and Albersheim, P. (1976): Host-pathogen interactions X. Fractionation and biological activity of an elicitor isolated from the

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antigen from MTB protected the mice against TB [ 8 ]. Liu et al. [ 9 ] showed that the fusion of Mtb8.4 and HspX proteins from MTB elicited strong immune responses in mice. Identification of the virulence factors playing role in the pathogenesis of

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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Eduardo Ekman Schenberg, Maria Angélica de Castro Comis, João Felipe Morel Alexandre, Luís Fernando Tófoli, Bruno Daniel Rasmussen Chaves, and Dartiu Xavier da Silveira

, the researcher described categories that were conceptualized to capture themes, concepts, and ideas that appeared in many different interviews and that seem related to the overall subjective experience elicited by ibogaine ingestion. The themes are

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In this review synonymous definitions of reactive arthritis are discussed first. Major clinical symptoms, their infectious etiology and epidemiology define post-dysenteric and post-venereal forms of reactive arthritis. Classical (smear, culture, biochemistry, antigen detection) and molecular (DNA and RNA detections) techniques are used in the routine microbial diagnosis that is retrospective in the majority of cases. In the pathomechanism of this disorder, HLA-B27 antigen positivity of patients is a frequent risk factor. Molecular mimicry between microbial and self-antigens, abnormal antigen presentation leading to incomplete CD8+ T lymphocyte activation might contribute to the persistence of microbial antigens that elicit clinical symptoms. Treatment is rarely successful with antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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attractive to use molecular and physiological tools to manage the secondary metabolites. One alternative strategy for enhancing these TIAs is using abiotic elicitors like methyl jasmonate (MJ) and putrescine ( Wojciak-Kosior et al. 2016 ). Putrescine is an

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The synthetic systemic acquired resistance elicitor benzothiadiazole (BTH) has been shown to elicit avenanthramide biosynthesis in the oat cultivar ‘Belle’. This report investigates the response of multiple oat cultivars to BTH as well as 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) at different growth stages. Oat seedlings (‘Gem’, ‘Kame’ and ‘Ogle’) were treated with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) or benzothiadiazole (BTH) at the three leaf (Z13) stage and subsequently assessed for accumulation of avenanthramides and analyzed for the activities of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:hydroxyanthranilate N-hydroycinnamoyl transferase (HHT). In addition, four cultivars (‘Belle’, ‘Gem’, ‘Kame’, and ‘Ogle’) were treated at the Z43 stage with BTH. The results indicated that after 48 h avenanthramides accumulated to significantly higher levels in the oat leaves in response to both INA and BTH treatment and this response tended to be fairly long lasting (336 h or more). Both elicitors also raised the activities of HHT enzyme in seedling leaves after 48 h. Genotypic differences in the kinetics and quantitative response were also observed in both the seedlings and the mature plants. The magnitude of avenanthramide production in the leaves was somewhat higher in the more mature plants. Filling grain also showed higher levels of avenanthramides compared to the untreated controls.

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