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Davis, K. R. and Ausubel, F. M. (1989): Characterisation of elicitor-induced defense responses in suspension-cultured cells of Arabidopsis. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 2, 363

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The synthetic systemic acquired resistance elicitor benzothiadiazole (BTH) has been shown to elicit avenanthramide biosynthesis in the oat cultivar ‘Belle’. This report investigates the response of multiple oat cultivars to BTH as well as 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) at different growth stages. Oat seedlings (‘Gem’, ‘Kame’ and ‘Ogle’) were treated with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) or benzothiadiazole (BTH) at the three leaf (Z13) stage and subsequently assessed for accumulation of avenanthramides and analyzed for the activities of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:hydroxyanthranilate N-hydroycinnamoyl transferase (HHT). In addition, four cultivars (‘Belle’, ‘Gem’, ‘Kame’, and ‘Ogle’) were treated at the Z43 stage with BTH. The results indicated that after 48 h avenanthramides accumulated to significantly higher levels in the oat leaves in response to both INA and BTH treatment and this response tended to be fairly long lasting (336 h or more). Both elicitors also raised the activities of HHT enzyme in seedling leaves after 48 h. Genotypic differences in the kinetics and quantitative response were also observed in both the seedlings and the mature plants. The magnitude of avenanthramide production in the leaves was somewhat higher in the more mature plants. Filling grain also showed higher levels of avenanthramides compared to the untreated controls.

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Chappell, J., VonLanken, C. and Vogeli, U. (1991): Elicitor-inducible 3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl Coenzyme-A reductase activity is required for sequiterpene accumulation in tobacco cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiol. 97, 693

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and behavioral addictions include cortico-striatal-limbic circuitry ( Kilts, Gross, Ely, & Drexler, 2004 ; Kober et al., 2016 ; Potenza et al., 2012 ). Multiple studies have identified gender-related differences in craving using cue-elicited craving

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647 656 Ayers, A. R., Ebel, J., Valent, B. and Albersheim, P. (1976): Host-pathogen interactions X. Fractionation and biological activity of an elicitor isolated from the

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antigen from MTB protected the mice against TB [ 8 ]. Liu et al. [ 9 ] showed that the fusion of Mtb8.4 and HspX proteins from MTB elicited strong immune responses in mice. Identification of the virulence factors playing role in the pathogenesis of

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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Eduardo Ekman Schenberg, Maria Angélica de Castro Comis, João Felipe Morel Alexandre, Luís Fernando Tófoli, Bruno Daniel Rasmussen Chaves, and Dartiu Xavier da Silveira

, the researcher described categories that were conceptualized to capture themes, concepts, and ideas that appeared in many different interviews and that seem related to the overall subjective experience elicited by ibogaine ingestion. The themes are

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In this review synonymous definitions of reactive arthritis are discussed first. Major clinical symptoms, their infectious etiology and epidemiology define post-dysenteric and post-venereal forms of reactive arthritis. Classical (smear, culture, biochemistry, antigen detection) and molecular (DNA and RNA detections) techniques are used in the routine microbial diagnosis that is retrospective in the majority of cases. In the pathomechanism of this disorder, HLA-B27 antigen positivity of patients is a frequent risk factor. Molecular mimicry between microbial and self-antigens, abnormal antigen presentation leading to incomplete CD8+ T lymphocyte activation might contribute to the persistence of microbial antigens that elicit clinical symptoms. Treatment is rarely successful with antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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attractive to use molecular and physiological tools to manage the secondary metabolites. One alternative strategy for enhancing these TIAs is using abiotic elicitors like methyl jasmonate (MJ) and putrescine ( Wojciak-Kosior et al. 2016 ). Putrescine is an

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Cytokine production has been implicated in the pathogenic mechanisms of infections caused by the staphylococci, since these bacteria may act as strong cytokine inducers. To gain deeper insight into the Th1 immune response activated by these bacteria, we have analyzed the interferon (IFN), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18-inducing activities of different Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus strains in human monocytes and murine bone marrow macrophages. A large majority of the S. aureus strains elicited the simultaneous production of IL-12 p70 and IFN-a in the human monocytes, while the S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus strains induced only a low level of production, if any, of these cytokines. Furthermore, a majority of the S. aureus strains induced significantly higher IL-12 p70 and IL-18 titers in the murine bone marrow macrophages than did the S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus strains. As IL-12, IL-18 and IFN-a stimulate Th1 differentiation synergistically, we suggest that S. aureus strains bias the immune response toward a Th1 phenotype, whereas S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus strains provide a weaker stimulus for the production of Th1-inducing cytokines, and accordingly possibly elicit a less extensive Th1-associated adaptive immunity.

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