Based on empirical research the
paper summarizes the social and institutional characteristics of the birth and
reproduction of the Hungarian nomenklatura system. The research included the
reconstruction of the decision making system, and the documents of recruitment.
Moreover interviews were conducted with several top officials of the Hungarian
Socialist Workers Party. The paper argues that although there was a chance to
form new elite after World War II., it did not happen because of the
infiltration of the Communist Party into the repressive organizations. The
take-over of power led to the formation of a nomenklatura. The paper overviews
the impact of the nomenklatura-system on the working of central institutions,
the academic world and civil organizations. It investigates the documents
dealing with the composition of the nomenklaktura and the privileges of its
An intensive investigation of the American science advisory system failed to find indications of elite structure in the selection or patterns of service of advisors. Advisory groups cannot act as elements of the invisible college circuits thatPrice refered to. The only long term advisors areex officio members.Advisory committee growth and activity is marked by three periods: 1951 to 1957, slow growth; 1957 to 1966, rapid growth; and 1967 to 1972, no growth. Combined with the pattern of growth in numbers of eligible scientists, a perception of elite control may have been created.
Karate is a polystructural acyclic sport ( 36 ), characterized by an intermittent physical activity, engaging very intense punches and kicks ( 9 , 43 ). Karate elite athletes are usually prescribed a mixed
Authors:P. Horváth, M. Petrekanits, I. Györe, Zs Kneffel, B. Varga-Pintér, and Gábor Pavlik
George KP, Gates PE, Whyte G, Fenoglio RA, Lea R: Echocardiographic examination of cardiac structure and function in elite cross trained male and female Alpine skiers. Br. J. Sports Med. 33, 93–98 (1999)