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Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of approach and avoidance motivation (evoked by particular bodily states) on the breadth of attentional scope. It was hypothesized that the enactment of approach behavior (induced by arm flexion) would broaden, whereas the enactment of avoidance behavior (induced by arm extension) would narrow attentional scope. Both conditions were also compared with neutral condition (with no additional action). Under these conditions subjects performed an attentional task — they had to respond to the dot appearing in one of the 5 positions on the screen (one central and four peripheral, situated on the horizontal line). Longer Reaction Times for the central dot position were observed. Such pattern of results can be caused by an inhibition of return-like (IOR) effect, evoked by the centrally situated fixation cross, disappearing before the exposition of the dot. To rule out this possibility a second study was conducted, using another type of fixation point. IOR-like effect has been minimized. However, this experiment also failed to show differences in performance on attentional task between conditions. In every condition reaction times were shortest for the central target location. Possible explanations of such pattern of results and ideas for future research are presented.

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Reclaiming the streets — Redefining democracy

The politics of the critical mass bicycle movement in Budapest

Hungarian Studies
Author: Éva Udvarhelyi

The Critical Mass bicycle movement, whose main aim is to reclaim cyclists’ right to use city streets freely, safely and proudly, is arguably the single most powerful grassroots movement that has emerged in Hungary since the 1989 change of regimes. While Critical Mass is a critique of today’s dominant motorized transportation practices as well as a celebration of alternative modes of transportation, it is not only about the environment. The Budapest Critical Mass can be read as the spatialized enactment of a direct and embodied form of democratic participation that goes beyond and at the same time transforms representative democracy. In the context of growing political apathy and widespread disillusionment with the formal public sphere in post-socialist Hungary, Critical Mass has emerged as a unique and powerful channel of citizen participation by forging a new kind of relationship between citizens, civil society and the state.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Ildikó Ábrahám, Máté Jambrik, Balázs John, Adrienn Réka Németh, Nóra Franczia, and Laura Csenki

] 21 Carruthers, G.: Types of body representation and the sense of embodiment. Conscious. Cogn., 2008, 17 (4), 1302–1316. 22 Longo, M. R

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Die psychosomatische Anthropologie ist traditionell mit dem Dualismus von zwei sich ausschließenden Ontologien belastet (Körper–Seele– oder Gehirn–Geist–Dualismus). Durch Appelle an eine „ganzheitliche“ Medizin soll eine körperlose Seelenheilkunde ebenso vermieden werden wie eine seelenlose Körpermedizin. Die vorliegende Arbeit plädiert im Gegensatz zu derartigen holistischen Beteuerungen dafür, die herkömmliche metaphysische Aporie der Medizin durch eine Dualität zweier Aspekte zu ersetzen, nämlich zwischen dem in der Perspektive der Ersten oder Zweiten Person erlebten Leib einerseits und dem in der Dritte-Person-Perspektive beschriebenen Körper andererseits. Dieser anthropologische Entwurf wird mithilfe der philosophischen Anthropologie, der Leib-Phänomenologie und der Körper-Soziologie begründet. Als medizinhistorisches Beispiel für die Korporifizierung des menschlichen Leibes dient das traditionelle Hysterie-Modell, welches zu Beginn der Psychoanalyse in neuer Weise aufgegriffen wurde.

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Certain passages in Octave Mirbeau's novels tend to subdue the imprecatory character of his fiction. This paper addresses the what is referred to as espaces de bonheur `spaces of joy' in "La 628-E8" (1907), a personal account of Mirbeau's travels through Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, which displays a number of characteristically modern features - a hybrid journal, travelogue and "self-fiction" - and in which three spaces are explored that please and relieve the author's sensitivity and writing: the automobile itself, the harbour, and art, embodiments of genius, grace, and human effort.

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Khanty culture in its present state — in the process of language loss and acculturation — still offers a wide field for the examination of notions related to everyday and sacral purity and their embodiment. Earlier research has explored certain details of these notions (e.g., regulations related to animals of mythological role, nutrition taboos and linguistic restrictions), it seems, however, that the concept of purity is more complex than that: it is a fundamental system which plays a central role, encompassing the whole of the traditional Khanty world, which ultimately defines the order of the world. This fact about the Khanty culture has practically not yet been articulated. The present research aims to explore the intersections of notions of purity and order in Khanty culture and to analyze the individual sub-fields.

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Abstract

Farewell to meat – carnevale – was the origin of the initially innocent merry-making customs that came into use around Shrovetide, near the Lenten season. This frolicking gradually deteriorated so much that Pope Benedict XIV had to issue a decree “inter cetera de bacchanalibus” to warn the believers. Some peculiar crucifix representations allude to these carnival excesses in a moralizing, allegorical form.

In the engraved icon of Hieronymus Wierix (1553–1619) (owned by the author) the crucifix allegory shows perhaps the embodiments of the seven deadly sins. They try to make the youth standing at the foot of the cross swerve away from pious life. The Latin caption of the engraving is from St Paul's letter to the Romans (Rom 8,35; 8,38–39). The second important depiction of the theme is in the graphic collection of the Benedictine abbey of Göttweig. The engraved sheet is the work of Matthäus Küsell (1629–1681) after Johann Christoph Storer's (1611?–1671) drawing. The bustling scene takes place on Calvary Hill. In the celestial sphere, on both sides of the darkened Sun and Moon, angels are hovering, two of them holding a banderol. Among the Vice figures torturing Christ a few characters of the Passion can also be discovered: Longinus with the lance, the soldiers who cast lots, the figure offering the sponge. In the right-hand corner a weeping angel is guarding the Arma Christi. The banderol refers to the crucified Christ, the rest of the characters actualize the scenario of Good Friday in a figurative sense. The latest graphic piece of the theme is an engraving possibly by Franz Karl Heissig (?–?) (owned by the author) from the mid-18th century. The Latin and German inscriptions unmistakably refer to the message of carnival crosses and also make allusions to the bacchanals of pagan Rome. The penitent Mary Magdalene at the foot of the cross is the only positive figure, the rest around her are embodiments of immoderate carnival revelries.

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A grand gesture

A review of Origins of Human Communication by Michael Tomasello. Bradford Books, MIT Press (2008), 400 pages. Price: £23.95 ($36.00), ISBN: 0262201771 (harback)

Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Author: Louise Barrett

2008 Culture, embodiment and genes: Unraveling the triple helix Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Ser. B 363 3563 3575

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1986 Buckland, Teresa. 2001. “Dance, Authenticity and Cultural Memory: The Politics of Embodiment.” Yearbook for Traditional Music 33: 1

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Abstract  

Deaths and resurrections of the subject. Comparative Literature studies have for some time now been engaged in a new phase in which the internationality of the subject matter is no longer at stake. In the global village literatures develop both transnationally and intranationally as parts of wider cultural patterns. Thus to reflect upon literature is increasingly a philosophical matter involving battles of Weltanschauungen. The problematic of the subject is a case in point. Subjectivity as embodiment of the individual human existent has come to be viewed negatively, particularly in the light of feminist and postcolonial theories, which question the universality of a subject built on objectifying the Other; thus the erstwhile object becomes in turn subject, and the equation is once again incomplete. We wish to examine a sampler of diverse, indeed scattered instances of a renewed interest in the problematic of the subject. For example, far from being dead, the Author reappears massively in biographical and autobiographical writings, and is tracked through genetic studies. The subject writes itself in interstices and margins, in discontinuity, elusiveness and uncertainty, as process rather than essence; but we hypothesize that this is in many literary and cultural contexts the very mode of its rehistoricization.

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