role in embryo implantation in mice, it has been found that PACAP may have an important function at the beginning of gestation, specifically in implantation. PACAP null females, compared to wild-type female mice, have been found to have lower
Gu , A. , Hao , P. , Lv , D. , Zhen , S. , Bian , Y. , Ma , C. , Li , X. , Zhang , W. , Yan , Y.
2015 . Integrated proteome analysis of the wheat embryo and endosperm reveals central metabolic changes involved in water
In spite of their cryobiological efficacy, minimum-volume vitrification methods suffer from the risk of microbiological contamination and are technically and/or manually demanding. In this study, the effects of a traditional, slightly modified vitrification method and vitrification using supercooled liquid nitrogen (VitMaster) applied for rabbit morula-stage embryos were compared. Embryos were equilibrated in a solution containing 1,2-propanediol (2.72 M) and glycerol (1.36 M) for 7 min and vitrified in 0.25-ml insemination straws after 1-min exposure to a vitrification solution containing additionally 1.0 M sucrose. Cooling was performed in ‘normal’ or supercooled liquid nitrogen. Regardless of the cooling method applied, high
survival and development rates of vitrified embryos were obtained. All embryos were intact after warming, and 61 out of 65 (93.8%) and 23 out of 24 (95.8%) embryos developed to the blastocyst stage after 48-h
culture of embryos vitrified in ‘normal’ or supercooled liquid nitrogen, respectively. The results suggest higher developmental ability of embryos vitrified in supercooled liquid nitrogen (91.7%
. 83.1% of embryos vitrified traditionally developed to more advanced, expanding and/or hatching blastocyst stages).
survival rate, tested for the traditional vitrification system only, revealed that 36.8% of embryos developed to term. The results show promise for establishing a fully successful method for rabbit embryo vitrification.
On day 9 or 12 of the hatching period different pesticides (parathion, methylparathion, carbendazim, 2,4-D-amine Na, phosmethylane) were applied in ecotoxicological trials. The formulations were either injected into the air space of pheasant, quail or hen eggs or hen eggs were treated by the immersion technique. The residues of pesticides were measured in samples on days 13, 14 and 16 of incubation of chicken and pheasant embryos, while the Japanese quail embryos were analysed on days 10-14 of incubation. Analytical chemistry data showed a varying degradation rate of the compounds in avian embryos of the same species. The residues directly affect the embryos, disturbing their normal development and causing pathophysiological and morphological changes.
Drought-tolerant Plainsman V and drought-sensitive Cappelle Desprez winter wheat genotypes were subjected to heat stress at 34/24°C combined with water withholding during early seed development in order to identify the joint effect of the stressors on embryo and endosperm development. During and after five days of treatment histological observations were made on the developing kernels and compared to yield data. Combined stress shortened the duration of the grain fill. With regard to kernel abortion, thousand-kernel weight and yield per spike, Plainsman V tolerated simultaneous elevated temperature and water withdrawal better than Cappelle Desprez. As a consequence of the stress the accumulation of B-type starch granules was almost completely absent in the endosperms of the sensitive genotype. The results indicate that compared to the drought-sensitive genotype, the tolerant genotype also showed increased tolerance of simultaneous drought and heat stress.
The sites of oestrogen action can be shown by the localisation of their receptors in the target tissues. The aim of the present study was to show the localisation of oestrogen receptors in porcine embryos and fetuses obtained on days 18, 22, 32, 40, 50, 60, 71 and 90
(p.c.). The visualisation of proteins was conducted in embryos and various fetal organs such as gonads, uterus, lung, kidney, intestine and adrenal gland. Both ERs were observed in the blastocysts on day 18 p.c. In the male, ERβ was detected in the testis and epididymis, whereas ERα was present in the efferent ductules. In the female, ERβ was detected in the ovarian stromal cells investing the oocyte nests, while ERα protein was detected in the surface epithelium. In the uterus, ERs were present in the stromal cells, while ERβ was present in the luminal epithelium. In the non-reproductive fetal porcine tissues ERβ was localised in the lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands and in the umbilical cords. Both ERs were observed in the intestine. It is possible that ERβ may play important roles in the development of the adrenal gland, testis, kidney and lungs, while both ERs are involved in the development of the ovary, uterus, epididymis and intestine of the porcine fetus.