Összefoglaló. A Harvard Egyetem Orosz Kutatási Központja egyedülálló
projektet valósított meg 1949 és 1953 között, több száz szovjet emigráns
életútinterjújának rögzítésével. A szociológiai indíttatású beszélgetések angol
átiratban maradtak fenn, az adatbázis elérhető online (Harvard Project on the
Soviet Social System). Magyarországon nem elemezték még az 1917 és 1945 közötti
szovjet hétköznapokról tanúskodó anyagot, mely két részre tagolódik: A-jegyzék
(személyes élettörténetek), B-jegyzék (speciális témák). Tanulmányom mindkét
összeállításból merítve mutatja be, hogy milyen kép rajzolódott ki a
pszichológia és pszichiátria helyzetéről az adatközlők és rögzítők interaktív
összjátékában: tanárok, klinikai pszichológusok, pszichiáterek beszélnek
szakmáról és annak politikai felhasználásáról.
Summary. A unique project was developed between 1949 and 1953 by the
Harvard University Russian Research Center, based on hundreds of interviews
recorded with Soviet emigrants, conducted by sociologists. The organized system
of transcripts, transcribed into English, are available online (Harvard Project
on the Soviet Social System). These interviews reflect everyday Soviet reality
between 1917 and 1945, and they have not yet been analysed in Hungary. The
corpus is constituted by two parts: A-Schedule (personal life stories) and
B-Schedule (special topics). Based on both, I give an acount of the positions of
Stalinist psychology and psychiatry, as created in the interactions of the
emigrants and the interviewers, in which teachers, clinical psychologists and
psychiatrists spoke about their profession placed in the dimension of the
Abla Farhoud, born in Lebanon and emigrant in Canada, retraces in her novelLe bonheur à la queue glissante, published in 1998, the story of Dounia, an elderly emigrant from Lebanon, who experiences a double exile; not only the one
of the expatriation out of the homeland, but also that of the senility. Intercultural incomprehension as well as intergenerational
incomprehension, constitute the base of a melancholic and tender reflection of a sorrowful woman.
The long stay of writers in emigration caused stylistic changes in their language. They preferred more general themes, existential problems to Czech or any other special local ones (especially if they had earlier such inclination, like Fischl, partly also Hostovský or Kundera). They (mainly Fischl) liked creating a story out of an actual place and time. Škvorecký, a born narrator, who was applying the narrative devices of modern realistic prose from the beginning of his carreer, followed another strategy. Partly he profited from the experiences gained in his second homeland, partly (later) he turned to historical themes about Czechs who had stayed or lived on the American continent. The life isolated from home changed the literary language of emigrants. Most authors wrote in Czech also in exterland, but their style became different. Those who lived in foreign countries for several decades used a highly literary language. The emigrants after 1968 wrote in “common Czech” (obecná čeština), slang or even in vernacular. Škvorecký's style has also been saturated by Anglo-Czech elements characteristic for Czech emigrants living in English speaking countries. Kundera, for the insufficient number of Czech readers in reach, turned more and more to French and world public. He chose a style easy for translation. From the middle of the '90s he has been writing mostly in French.
No matter how strong the intellectual and other psychological predispositions for top scientific achievement and/or a successful
scientific career, neither the processes of a general and scientific socialisation nor the socio-cultural or socio-professional
environment can be avoided or neglected. Empirical support for the thesis on the impact of the social environment on the formation
and the influence of the scientific elite of a country is supported by three analysed research studies: on distinguished Croatian
scientists (1995), on the population of Croatian scientists (1990) and on Croatian scientific emigrants (1986).
The author presents the history of a local language. In the 1750s, in Debrecen religious books were printed for the East Slovakian kalvinists living in the North-East part of the Kingdom of Hungary. These books were written in the East Slovakian dialect of the Zemplén county but in Hungarian orthography. This language had been used until 1923. In Slovakia, however, the adherents of the uniform literary Slovakian language, upon the initiative of the Slovakian kalvinist emigrants settled in the USA, gradually forced the East Slovakian kalvinist dialect out of the ecclesiastical use and in 1955 abolished it finally.
A progress report on a research dealing with the attribution and localisation of a curious painting. The iconography, the motifs and the composition show many links with the pictorial tradition of the subject-matter in the Netherlandish art of the 15th-16th centuries. But the support is not the usual oak panel used there and the style is not to be linked with any known hand. The painting might have been painted by an emigrant or wandering Flemish painter either in France or in Spain, but it can not be localised exactly. It is an remarkable example of the radiation of Flemish painting and style in the mid-16th century.
The Hungarian Avant-Garde periodical Magyar Műhely has been published in Paris since 1962, from the mid-1960s on with the collaboration of Hungarian emigrants living in Vienna. The paper deals with the periodical (layout, cover design, typography) and with the published contributions (works of art, illustrations, photo documentation on the one side, texts on the other: literature, theoretical essays and documentary material) focusing on their materiality. The process of production as well as of the reception of Magyar Műhely seem to be describable correctly if its diverse media formats (periodical, text, picture, hybrid formats, such as, for example, picture poems) are understood in their materiality. The special variant of the avantgardistic aesthetics embodied in Magyar Műhely, that it provided a platform for experiment and innovation as well as for the “other”, correspond with the fact that it was published by people on the margins for a marginalised, emigrant public. The paper discusses these aesthetic, organizational and political issues focusing on works of geometric art and visual poetry printed in the periodical.
Archelaus, King of Macedonia, proved to admire Greek culture by inviting some distinguished authors and artists to live at his Court. They were the Athenian tragedians Euripides and Agathon, the poet and musician Timotheus of Miletus, the epic poet Choerilus of Samos and the painter Zeuxis of Heraclea, and it is possible that Thucydides, the historian, belonged to them, too. The Greek guests who did not seem to comply with the established standards of the contemporaneous art and life excelled at creating new forms and ideas. Without being a coherent group they were highly inspiring individuals. Each of them succeeded in promoting the literary or artistic field. Due to the generosity of their Macedonian host the Greek emigrants, far away from the struggles of the Peloponnesian War, were able to enjoy a safe and apparently prolific stay — evident above all from the Euripidean Iphigeneia in Aulis and the Bacchae.
This study is part of a larger project to integrate into Holocaust discourses the voices of women survivors, which can provide valuable insights both for Holocaust studies and gender studies. I first briefly review some of the main issues relating to the need to study female Holocaust (life) writing, in order to offer a theoretical frame for the main focus of my study: a historical introduction to “literaried” testimonies of some two dozen Hungarian emigrant women, written over a span of over half a century. I will be highlighting translation and gender issues, as well as the variety of narrative techniques the authors utilize. None of the women I study published in Hungarian, even as in some cases they had original contemporary diaries or earlier drafts in that language. Hence, the first part of my title means to focus on the additional complicating issues of self translation of traumatic events by survivors who live in emigration.