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Bacon, C. W., White, J. F.: Microbial Endophytes. Marcel Dekcker Inc., New York (2000). White J. F. Microbial

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Summary

Profiles of volatile secondary metabolites (VSM) in Mediterranean and Continental Festuca arundinacea, either endophyte free or infected with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum strain AR542, were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The profile of VSM in the endophyte-free Mediterranean F. arundinacea germplasm was similar to that of endophyte-free Continental F. arundinacea germplasm. However, the VSM profile in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea was different to that in AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Compound 1, identified as N-acetylnorloline, was detected in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea as being sevenfold greater compared with its level in AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Levels of compounds 2, 4, and 5 detected in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea were significantly lower when compared with their levels in the AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Levels of compound 3 were similar in both germplasms infected with endophyte strain AR542. The levels of compounds 2, 4, and 5 but not compound 3 were different between AR542 infected and endophyte free depending on germplasm. On the basis of the mass spectra obtained, compounds 2, 3, 4, and 5 were identified as tridecanoic acid methyl ester, n-capric acid, 11, 14, 17-eicosatrienoic acid, and linoleic acid ethyl ester, respectively. Our results highlight key differences between the Mediterranean and Continental germplasms. Comparison of the VSM of AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea with AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea showed that there are quantitative differences between the two germplasms. These differences, which may impact on grazing systems involving horses, most probably arose as a result of intrinsic genetic differences between the two germplasms and are yet to be indentified.

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A novel camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus viz., Entrophospora infrequens was isolated from an important Indian medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida . The present study reports evaluation of bioactivities of two novel extracts viz., chloroform (CEEI) and methanolic (MEEI) extracts of Entrophospora infrequens with respect to their immunomodulatory potential in vitro and in vivo (in Balb/c mice). The endophyte E. infrequens was found to synthesize camptothecin, which tested positive in CEEI. The immunomodulatory potential of CEEI and MEEI was compared with standard camptothecin (CPT). Doses of the chloroform extract (CEEI) ranging from 12.5–100 mg/kg body weight, significantly (p<0.05) stimulated the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. MEEI on the other hand significantly (p<0.05) stimulated the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction (by nearly 80%), plaque forming cell (PFC) assay (33%), phagocytic response (38%) and haemagglutination antibody (HA) titre [IgM by 79.07% and IgG by 62.05%] at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The present study is the first report of the immunomodulatory potential of this neoteric camptothecin-producing endophyte from Nothapodytes foetida .

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References Aly , A. H. , Debbab , A. , Kjer , J. and Proksch , P. ( 2010 ): Fungal endophytes from higher plants: a prolific source of phytochemicals and other

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Raheem Shahzad, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul Latif Khan, Khadija Al-Hosni, Sang-Mo Kang, Chang-Woo Seo, and In-Jung Lee

. ( 2012 ) Dynamics of seedborne rice endophytes on early plant growth stages . PLoS ONE 7 ( 2 ): e30438 17. Janso , J. E. , Carter , G. T. ( 2010 ) Biosynthetic potential

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, 384 pp. Jumpponen , A. and Trappe , J. M. ( 1998 ): Dark septate endophytes: a review of facultative biotrophic root colonizing fungi. – New Phytol. 140 : 295 – 310 . https

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23 1253 1263 Wilson, D.: Endophyte — the evolution of a term, and clarification of its use and definition. Oikos 73 , 274–276 (1995

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of endophytic fungi from tartary buckwheat on the host sprout growth and functional metabolite production. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and rutin accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the mycelia elicitor species along with its treatment dose. Three endophytic fungi Fat6 (Bionectria pityrodes), Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened to be the most effective candidates for promoting F. tataricum sprout growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS, 150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat6, PS (200 mg/l) of endophyte Fat9, and PS (150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat15, the rutin yield was effectively increased to 47.89 mg/(100 sprouts), 45.85 mg/(100 sprouts) and 46.83 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.5- to 1.6-fold compared to the control culture of 29.37 mg/(100 sprouts). Furthermore, the present study revealed that the biosynthesis of the functional flavonoid resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia polysaccharide treatments. Application of specific fungal elicitors could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

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Community Ecology
Authors: M. Idbella, M. Zotti, G. Cesarano, T. Fechtali, S. Mazzoleni, and G. Bonanomi

corresponding phytotoxicity . J. Chem. Ecol. 27 : 95 – 107 . Bamisile , B.S. , Dash , C.K. , Akutse , K.S. , Keppanan , R. and Wang , L . 2018 . Fungal endophytes: beyond herbivore

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Neda Haddadderafshi, Tímea Borbála Pósa, Gábor Péter, László Gáspár, Márta Ladányi, Károly Hrotkó, Noémi Lukács, and Krisztián Halász

, A. E. , Henk , D. A. , Eells , R. L. , Lutzoni , F. , Vilgalys , R. ( 2007 ) Diversity and phylogenic affinities of foliar fungal endophytes in loblolly pine inferred by culturing and environmental PCR . Mycologia 99 , 185 – 206

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