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expression of genes encoding enzymes for starch biosynthesis in developing wheat endosperm. Plant Sci. 164 :873–881. DuPont F.M. Effect of temperature on expression of genes encoding

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death progress of endosperm in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) under waterlogging . Protoplasma 253 : 311 – 327 . Dong , K. , Zhen , S. , Cheng , Z. , Cao , H. , Ge , P

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Drought-tolerant Plainsman V and drought-sensitive Cappelle Desprez winter wheat genotypes were subjected to heat stress at 34/24°C combined with water withholding during early seed development in order to identify the joint effect of the stressors on embryo and endosperm development. During and after five days of treatment histological observations were made on the developing kernels and compared to yield data. Combined stress shortened the duration of the grain fill. With regard to kernel abortion, thousand-kernel weight and yield per spike, Plainsman V tolerated simultaneous elevated temperature and water withdrawal better than Cappelle Desprez. As a consequence of the stress the accumulation of B-type starch granules was almost completely absent in the endosperms of the sensitive genotype. The results indicate that compared to the drought-sensitive genotype, the tolerant genotype also showed increased tolerance of simultaneous drought and heat stress.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Y.P. Jing, D.T. Liu, X.R. Yu, F. Xiong, D.L. Li, Y.K. Zheng, Y.F. Hao, Y.J. Gu, and Z. Wang

Becraft, P.W. 2001. Cell fate specification in the cereal endosperm. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 12 :387–394. Becraft P.W. Cell fate specification

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10991 Oszvald, M., Gardonyi, M., Jenes, B., Tomoskozi, S., Juhasz, A., Tamas, L. (2003): Development and improvement of endosperm specific promoters for foreign protein expression in cereal seed. pp. 899

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Lowe, L.B., Ries, S.K. 1973. Endosperm protein of wheat seed as a determinant of seedling growth. Plant Physiology 51 :57–60. Ries S.K. Endosperm protein of wheat seed as a

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: H. Yu, Y. Yang, X.Y. Chen, G.X. Lin, J.Y. Sheng, J.Y. Nie, Q.J. Wang, E.J. Zhang, X.R. Yu, Z. Wang, and F. Xiong

The waxy wheat shows special starch quality due to high amylopectin content. However, little information is available concerning the development and degradation of amyloplast from waxy wheat endosperm. To address this problem, waxy wheat variety, Yangnuo 1, and a non-waxy wheat variety, Yangmai 13, were chosen to investigate the development and degradation of endosperm amyloplast during wheat caryopsis development and germination stage respectively using histochemical staining and light microscopy. Changes of morphology, the soluble sugar and total starch content were indistinguishable in the process of caryopsis development of two wheat varieties. The developing endosperm of non-waxy was stained blue-black by I2-KI while the endosperm of waxy wheat was stained reddish-brown, but the pericarp of waxy and non-waxy wheat was stained blue-black. In contrast to nonwaxy wheat, endosperm amyloplast of waxy wheat had better development status and higher proportion of small amyloplast. During seed germination many small dissolution pores appeared on the surface of endosperm amyloplast and the pores became bigger and deeper until amyloplast disintegrated. The rate of degradation of waxy wheat endosperm amyloplast was faster than non-waxy wheat. Our results may also be helpful to the use of waxy starch in food and nonfood industry.

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The objective of this study is the analysis of polymorphism in seed endosperm proteins (gliadins and glutenins) of Turkish cultivated einkorn wheat [Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum] landraces. The genetic diversity of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the gliadin proteins in 10 landrace populations of cultivated einkorn wheat, originating from Turkey, was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ammonium lactic acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE), respectively. For glutenins, the mean number of alleles, the mean number of effective alleles, the mean value of genetic diversity and the mean value of average genetic diversity were detected as 3.50, 2.98, 0.65 and 0.28, respectively. The genetic differentiation was 0.57, while gene flow was 0.19 between populations. For gliadins, the mean number of alleles, the mean number of effective alleles, the mean value of total genetic diversity and the genetic diversity within population were detected as 2.00, 1.21, 0.17 and 0.15, respectively. The genetic differentiation was 0.08, whereas gene flow was 6.15 between populations. STRUCTURE is a software package program for population genetic analysis, was used to infer population structures of landraces populations. The optimum value for K was obtained as 10. Considering the high number of proteins and genetic variation, and increased interest in organic products, the farming of einkorn wheat should be supported and conservation of germplasm in landraces should be maintained as important genetic resources. The landraces germplasm should be conserved for future crop improvement processes.

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amylase activity of barley endosperm. Plant Physiol. 35 , 293–299. Paleg L. G. Physiological effects of gibberellic acid: 1. on carbohydrate metabolism and amylase activity of barley

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protein maize for Africa . Afr. J. Biotechnol. 6 : 312 – 324 . Lopes , M.A. , Larkins , B.A. 1995 . Genetic analysis of opaque2 modifier gene activity in maize endosperm

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