(Source: Honghao He) 3 The enlightenment of street art activities intervening in urban public space 3.1 Base on the result and findings of the studies Through the effective ways of street art to intervene in urban public space, some planning strategies
The public theatres of Hungary in the age of Enlightenment became symbols of the strengthened bourgeois. These theatres using traditional baroque stage technology but the external appearances of the buildings already show the new style the Classicism. The article deals primarily with the public theatres built in Pest-Buda around that time, while providing a brief outlook of the public theatres operated in the larger cultural and administrative centers of Hungary in the 18th–19th centuries.
The frescoes decorating the stateroom of the Episcopal palace of Szombathely were painted by Franz Anton Maulbertsch in 1783 on commission from bishop János Szily. The lateral walls received scenes from the history of the Roman predecessor of the town Savaria in the form of grisaille murals imitating bronze reliefs. The four paintings – Tiberius Claudius founds Savaria, Septimius Severus is elected emperor, Triumph of Constantinus Chlorus, and Attila chases the Romans out of Pannonia – conjure up the Roman world with a multitude of detail and with historical authenticity. Besides, they also deliberately apply the iconographic and compositional rules of relief sculpture in the Imperial Period. This historicizing rendering is an indicator of the new accent on historism, suggesting the 18th century transformation of the concept of history fed by the recognition of the historical distance between the event and the observer.
The ceiling shows the process of salvation under the governance of Providence. Some elements were borrowed by Maulbertsch from his earlier work in the former library of the Premonstratensian monastery in Louka, Moravia. The theme is the temporal process of the enlightenment of mankind, but the historical examples are replaced here by abstract notions, the time and space coordinates appearing highly generalized. In the middle the allegorical figure of Divine Providence arrives on clouds, with personifications of the Old and New Testaments beneath him suggesting periods in the history of salvation. As a counterpoint to Providence bringing the glimmer of dawn, the Allegory of the Night is depicted at the other end of the ceiling. The two sleeping figures are captives of the lulling power of the fauns symbolizing irrational existence governed by instincts. The pseudo-reliefs and sculptures painted in the corners represent heathenism, the ante legem period of the process of salvation. The medallions show typical episodes of bacchanals of putti, and the grisaille figures most likely repeat motifs of the bacchanal scene in the Louka fresco. The themes of the other three colour frescoes are Europe's apotheosis among the continents, Revelation of the True Religion, and the Apotheosis of Truth in the company of Religion, Humility and the Christian martyrs. It is actually a modernized psychomachy, presenting the victory of Christianity, faith and the virtues over paganism, the instincts and vices. The allegoric groups are witty renderings of conventional formulae.
The rich painted architecture of the ceiling is based on Paul Decker's pattern sheet complemented with neoclassical elements but preserving its irrational character. The illusory architecture, the rivaling lifelikeness of colourful and monochrome figures creates a play of degrees of reality that mobilize the imagination. Maulbertsch's pictorial world can be characterized with the concepts of delicieux and charmant used to describe Mozart's music; his tools of expression convey an ease and serenity that are not light-minded but with the tools of subtle irony and humour invite the viewer for more sophisticated reflections, contrary to the propagandistic allegories.
The author analyzes professor Nyomárkay’s work “Anyanyelvi ébredés és hagyomány nálunk és szomszédainknál” (‘Mother tongue revival and tradition in Hungary and in the neighbouring countries’). The grammar “Verbesserte Anleitung zur deutschen Sprachlehre” written in Vienna is in the centre of the analysis, with its influence on contemporary Slovakian, Croatian, Slovenian, and Hungarian grammars.
In 1783 György Alajos Szerdahelyi (1740–1808) published his
Ars Poetica Generalis ad Aestheticam seu Doctrinam Boni Gustus conformata
. The Jesuit author not only developed a poetical, but also an aesthetical system illustrated by his
Aesthetica sive doctrina boni gustus
(both 1784) aimed at completing his literary concept. In 1788 in his
Silva Parnassi Pannonii
, dedicated to the famous astronomer Maximilian Hell, Szerdahelyi shows his own poetic talent by demonstrating the union of theoretical knowledge and practice. In the same year Szerdahelyi’s
Historia Uraniae Musae
was published for the second time. In 1803 the second volume of the
Silva Parnassi Pannonii
was printed. Szerdahelyi’s oeuvre shows his self-confidence and made him admired all over the Habsburg Empire. He estimated antiquity, but was open for modernity as well. His motto printed in the frontispiece of the
Silva Parnassi Pannonii
describes his work in an ideal way:
Nihil pulchrum, quod non bonum
The principal claim of the essay is that sentiments and assumptions about sentiments - have an important role in setting up constitutional designs and interpretation (“evolving standards of decency”); - constitutional arrangements do have impacts on social emotions; - the disregard of the interrelation of emotions and other forms of cognition condemns legal theory to one-sidedness and the efforts of behavioral economics seem not to undo this one-sidedness. For example, fear is present in the making of many constitutions. Constitutions are designed to give assurances against fear that stems from, among others, pre-constitutional oppression, mob rule and factional passions. Constitutional rights are also structured by emotions: Compassion and indignation serve as emotional grounds to accept and claim human rights. A simplified vision of modernity claims that law and constitutional design is all about rationality. Brain imaging studies indicate that moral emotions guide many moral judgments or are in competition with reasoning processes. Of course, moral emotions contribute to the shaping of law through moral judgments. To the extent law intends to shape behavior, it will rely on its legal folk psychology. A theory of constitutional sentiments shall reconstruct the assumptions on human nature as emotional nature that shape the constitution and its interpretation. Historically, constitutional path dependence presupposes emotional choices and emotional action tendencies that are institutionalized and 'imposed' on law and society. Paradigmatic changes in constitutional law cannot be explained without considering the path-breaking rule of emotions. For example, the commitment to abolish slavery cannot be explained without the emotional condemnation (based on disgust and resulting in indignation) of the institution. The ban on torture is also rooted in sentiments of disgust. Concepts of cruel and unusual punishment are rooted in emotions of disgust. Law is both trying to script emotions (in order to prevent challenges to the status quo) and accommodates prevailing (or preferred) emotions (hence the difficulty of a non-revenge based criminal policy).
, Freunden und Schülern. Wiesbaden.
Zieme, P. (1999): The „Sūtra of Complete Enlightenment in Old Turkish Buddhism”. In: McRae, J. - Nattier, J. (eds): Collection of Essays, 1993: Buddhism Across Boundaries - Chinese
The aim of the present paper is to outline, briefly, what kinds of tendencies in intellectual history have had an impact on international Homeric scholarship in various ages and, mainly, to point out why in Hungary Homeric studies started relatively late and how they developed. Poets interpreted Homer rather quickly for themselves in harmony with the dominant ideas of various ages. Professional scholarship reacted slower, but by and by it made up its backwardness, now and then even superseding its models.