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. Zillmann, D. (2000): The coming of media entertainment. In D. Zillmann and P. Vorderer (eds): Media Entertainment. The Psychology of its Appeal. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1-20. Media Entertainment. The

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References Cited A mes Eric 2009 Carl Hagenbeck's Empire of Entertainment . Washington : University of

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lint , Richard W. 1979 The Evolution of the Circus in Nineteenth-Century America . In M atlaw , Myron (ed.) American Popular Entertainment: Papers and Proceedings of the Conference on the History of American

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, Richard 2002 Only entertainment . London and New York : Routledge . F edec 2009 Teeterboard. Basic Circus Arts Instruction Manual

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The present paper deals with the issue of defining functional tools able to help modern historians understand the genesis and evolution of historiography in 14th-century Anatolia. It emphasises the indistinct lines between hagiographies and sagas and between leader-centred and popular texts, while making a strong case for the key role played by the necessity of creating entertainment. Having become bestsellers exponentially raised the chances of these creations to survive across centuries. Most of the texts we use today as historical sources were designed to entertain their consumers. Moralising or ideologically manipulating them came only in the second or third place.

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“An outright abundance of amusements. Twenty out of thirty posters announce and praise the spectacles so far unparalleled. In Passage-Panoptikum, the Dahomeys laid out. I proceeded onwards to catch sight of some more people. (…)

A huge, gilded hall flooded with rays of the sun, crowded and buzzing. Music plays a sentimental waltz. The masses smoke, and speak. White aprons of waiters cross the hall in diverse directions, and one may hear knocks of pitchers and a hoarse voice:

– Beer!

The hall is full of Dahomey. They squeeze between the tables with the dexterity of monkeys and wheedle money. They are almost naked and beautifully built. The black-and-ashen hue of their skin is velvety, glittering and invariably soft. A certain Dahomey Venus simpers and intrusively strives for selling a photograph of her. (…) two enchanters or bonzes wearing white coats came out to the forefront of the stage. One of them holds a monstrous deity, coarsely hewn of wood; and the second – a flat, cane basket and a long pipe made of reed.

– Serpents! A serpent! Die Schlange! – the crowd yells and a strange kind of shiver pierced through everyone. (…)

The snakes stood almost vertically and started to perform a kind of dance along slanting lines. Their long and greenish bodies writhed, bounced and fell on the ground hissing. There is commotion in the hall, but after a while the crowd erupts in applause, and this European, metropolitan mob is immersed in delight. (…)

Gentlemen! Buy photographs showing the King of Dahomey. Only one mark a piece…” (Reymont 1894).

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At the turn of the 20th century many Native Americans took part in white man's enterprises: first Wild West shows, then silent movies. Wild West shows toured not only the United States but the Old World as well, including the south-eastern edges of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Among the Native Americans who performed in Europe particularly visible were the Lakota (western Sioux) who performed, among others, in Buffalo Bill's Wild West show. The most famous of these Lakotas was Sitting Bull who had led his people's military resistance against encroaching white Americans a decade beforehand. Sitting Bull joined the Buffalo Bill's show for 1885 season. In 1890, the Sioux and other tribes lived a great religious awakening that was named Ghost Dance, hoping that by performing the Ghost Dance ritual they would make their lives better and get rid of the white men who took their lands, put them in reservations, broke treaty promises and brought hunger and diseases. On December 15, 1890, Sitting Bull was killed by Indian Police in front of his cabin at the Standing Rock reservation. Two weeks later, on December 29, 1890, at least two hundred, but perhaps as many as three hundred, Lakotas were killed in the tragic battle (that soon turned into a massacre) at Wounded Knee or died in its aftermath.

A few months later, almost one hundred Lakotas, including those who survived Wounded Knee massacre, joined the Buffalo Bill show during its second European tour. In 1902 they participated in the third European tour of Buffalo Bill's Wild West, now called Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World. I will discuss the show as well as the Native American performers and their reception while the show travelled among Polish cities during the summer of 1906, almost at the end of that tour. Delving into Polish press of that period, I will attempt to demonstrate how the Polish press made various, sometimes quite unexpected uses of the show.

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The choice of the theme is interdisciplinary, drawing on the findings not only of ethnography and anthropology but also of sociology and musicology and offering new results for these disciplines. The researcher strives for a multidisciplinary approach and methodological diversity, focusing on questions which have not yet been studied or only to a very limited extent. The theme examined: how youth create their own culture and the micro world of their own group cultures based on music. She examines the values that prevail and the extent to which groups are distinct from each other and the previous generation. Both members of the age group and specialists dealing with youth (DJ, youth organiser) are interviewed. In contrast with the notion of “subculture” widely used in the social sciences, the author examines youth culture as group cultures equal in value, existing side by side and in the same time frame. The age group surveyed comprised 500 third- and fourth-year secondary school students. Research methods: interviews, representative questionnaires; on-the-spot observations. Group cultures analysed: rocker, alternative, punk, skinhead, rapper, disco, raver, house. Structure: short outline of music and social history, presentation of the groups concerned, typological comparisons.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Haoran Meng, Hongjian Cao, Ruining Hao, Nan Zhou, Yue Liang, Lulu Wu, Lianjiang Jiang, Rongzi Ma, Beilei Li, Linyuan Deng, Zhong Lin, Xiuyun Lin, and Jintao Zhang

when using smartphones (i.e., learning, entertainment, and communication activities) in such associations. By going beyond the monolithic conceptualization of both smartphone use motivation and time, we seek to obtain increased specificity in our

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References Cited B araniecka -O lszewska , Kamila 2019 The Sarrasani Circus in Opole. On Entertainment in the City in the First Decades of

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