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assigned to the first group originate in disciplines such as pedagogy, epistemology and cognitive psychology. What classifies these approaches as ‘intrinsic’ in the above sense is that they focus on the cognitive dimension of knowledge, i.e. knowledge as a

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Ibn Ḥazm’s (d. 456/1064) Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah is a sui generis work in the history of mediaeval Arabic culture. Modern scholarship on Ibn Ḥazm’s Ṭawq proceeds along three lines: (1) editing and translating the Ṭawq; (2) explicating the Ṭawq and enquiring into its originality; and (3) looking into the Ṭawq from a comparative perspective. I intend, however, to pursue further the question of the Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah’s uniqueness, and I would also suggest a new reading of the text based on the exposition of its epistemology. My main proposition is that the Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah’s idiosyncracies rest on Ibn Ḥazm’s endeavour to advance an epistemic justification of the concept of love. Ibn Ḥazm stresses that writing on love is beyond any fictional narrative. He underlines the idea that entering into the phenomena of love should adhere to al-ḥaqīqah (the truth) and should avoid any kind of flawed explorations. To arrive at an understanding of the work through the angle of al-ḥaqīqah, Ibn Ḥazm further contends that writing on love should be based on three key principles: (i) testimony; (ii) observation; (iii) and knowledge stored in memory. These principles are behind the Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah’s epistemology that renders any writing on love not merely a fictional narrative but a textual attempt to depict the actual human experience. By deploying the principles of epistemology to investigate love, Ibn Ḥazm’s Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah not only modifies the existing genre of writing on love and lovers but also considers some aspects of this emotion that had hitherto evaded literary and scholarly treatment. This paper will explore Ibn Ḥazm’s perspective on the ways of writing on love and manifest his epistemological approach in exploring the essence of this emotion as well as its causes and symptoms.

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this brief overview, we can see that questions about epistemic ethics and epistemology itself are deeply intertwined. Some argue that psychedelics impose misrepresentations and cognitive distortions that amount to epistemic harm. Others argue that

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The paper aims to characterize the reading task as a situation in which it is the communicative reader that leads the dialogue. By formulating hypotheses, the learner poses questions to the text which will answer. In this case, the demarcation between speaking and written language is not pertinent. The prereading tasks also presuppose the validity of the notion of “category” that help reduce the text to a few descriptive parameters. Classroom activities are arguments that weaken the eclectic and post-communicativist criticisms addressed to the communicative approach by pointing out an non-reducible personality of the learner. Another weak point of these criticisms resides in the history of epistemology. Francis Bacon also plead for a non-reducible personality of the substance and unhappily predicted that chemistry as a science was impossible to be founded.

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To what extent, if at all, can we say that the bishop of Hippo thought that the eternal rules function as truth-criteria for empirical knowledge? In the first part of this paper the author tries to show that the position according to which Augustine's theory of illumination provides a theory of knowledge that accounts even for sense-perception is extreme and based in part on a flawed interpretation of the texts; hence it is impossible to regard Augustine's eternal rules as truth-criteria in the true sense of the term. On the other hand, the aim of the second section is to argue that certain pragmatic traits can indeed be found in Augustine's “epistemology”. He rejects dogmatism on moral grounds and states that it is the duty of the Christian philosopher to extend his researches to the sphere of empirical knowledge. The eternal rules, it can be said, serve as points of reference for a form of probabilism.

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In this essay, I interpret two Hungarian novels from the field of Holocaust literature concentrating upon the problems of representation. I argue that neither Kertész nor Márton can avoid facing the question whether the challenges of remembering and representation can be bound and reflected in a literary form. Past events are repeatedly narrated in present tense in both novels. For Márton, the fragments of narration do not constitute a story, and the invasion of imaginative elements provokes the conventional frames of depicting historical facts in an epistemological horizon. On the other hand, in Fateless storytelling emphasises the inconceivable character of the Holocaust, and Kertész's work sheds light on philosophical paradoxes beyond epistemology. In this sense these two novels prove to be different but connected forms of Holocaust literature.

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Abstract  

Walter Benjamin's (WB) final important work, left untitled andusually called “[Theses] On the Concept of History” (CH) is an attempt ata philosophy of history, which is constituted by a refusal of systematicconceptuality and a great reliance on images such as the figural tableauxof the Angel of (catastrophic) History and the Chess-Player. Its foundingmove is to transfer the arrested epistemological moment to politics, whichis of a piece with the absence of any positive Subject, of the future, andof narrative. This article discusses then “1. Intellectuals and Politics, Images and Structure”, identifying WB's root experience of life underthe bourgeoisie as the Modernist topos of lay Hell. The dialectic of long-range understanding vs. short-range militancy of the anti-bourgeois intelligentsiaunderlies the strengths and gaps in CH. Its genre is seen as nearer to acompressed tractate than to theses. Its central method is the reliance onstriking images as architectonic bearers of meanings, in a Surrealist braidingwith some new or revalued concepts: WB is perhaps the Magritte of criticaltheory. CH focusses on the Chess-Player, the Angel, and the absent but necessaryMessiah, but the precise meaning and the figural status of these key mentionsare debatable. Based on this, “2. A Pointer Toward Analyzing ‘CH’”puts forth a counter-proposal to G. Kaiser's analysis of its thematics(how is history to be understood as happening?) and its structure by meansof a new grouping of its 18 sections, arguing that the ending may be readas the place where the incompleteness emerges. “3. Time and History, Image and Story” focusses on WB's refusals of the future and of story-telling, which prefigure most attempts today to understand catastrophic history. They culminate in WB's privileging of the arrested moment. It seems to confuseepiste- mology of cognition with ontology of history: if so, the price ofWB's brilliant devices may prove too high.

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