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Abstract  

The curing agents of epoxy resin, trimethylsilyl ethers of phenol novolak (TMSPN) and cresol novolak (TMSCN) were prepared by refluxing phenol novolak and cresol novolak respectively, with the mixture of hexamethyldisilazane and chlorotrimethylsilane in THF. The curing reaction of epoxy resin with these curing agents and the thermal properties of cured resins were examined. The Tg values of epoxy resins cured with TMSPN were a little higher than those cured with TMSCN. The maximum of Tg is 118C for TMSPN-cured epoxy resin against 112C for TMSPN-cured epoxy resin. The water absorption of hydrophobic epoxy resins cured with TMSPN was a little lower than those cured with TMSCN. The clear decrease of water absorption is attributed to the difficulty of the micro-void formation caused by the more tight primary structures of TMSPN. The water absorption at 25C containing trimethylsilyl groups is about one-tenth of that of epoxy resins cured with conventional curing agents and even one-half of that of the epoxy resins cured with active esters. The low water absorption is attributed to the presence of trimethylsilyl groups, which are more hydrophobic than ester groups, and to the absence of hydroxyl groups of the cured resins.

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Abstract  

The effect of network structure on the glass transition temperature (T g) was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, thermomechanical analysis and dynamic thermomechanometry for epoxy resins cured with mixtures of curing agents consisting of an active ester, 1,3,5-triacetoxybenzene (TAB), and a polyfunctional phenol, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB). Free hydroxyl groups are formed from THB after curing, whereas acetyl groups are left from TAB. TheT g value of cured epoxy resins decreased with increasing TAB content in the curing agent, which is attributed to the looser network structure induced by the steric hindrance of acetyl groups from TAB in the curing reaction and also to the weaker intermolecular interaction and the internal plasticization of acetyl groups from TAB.

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By means of DSC, DTA, TG and NMR it was established that the process of cure of epoxy resins induced by aqueous solutions of heteropolyacids consists of two stages, the first one being connected with a catalytic interaction between oligomer and water, and the second one with epoxy-hydroxyl etherification. Analysis of kinetic data shows that the first reaction is diffusion controlled, the second process can be described by pseudo-first order kinetics with activation energy about 40 kJ/M.

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Abstract  

Pentaerythritol diphosphonate melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin salt, a novel cheap macromolecular intumescent flame retardants (IFR), was synthesized, and its structure was a caged bicyclic macromolecule containing phosphorus characterized by IR. Epoxy resins (EP) were modified with IFR to get the flame retardant EP, whose flammability and burning behavior were characterized by UL 94 and limiting oxygen index (LOI). 25 mass% of IFR were doped into EP to get 27.2 of LOI and UL 94 V-0. The thermal properties of epoxy resins containing IFR were investigated with thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Activation energy for the decomposition of samples was obtained using Kissinger equation. The resultant data show that for EP containing IFR, compared with EP, IFR decreased mass loss, thermal stability and R max, increased the char yield. The activation energy for the decomposition of EP is 230.4 kJ mol−1 while it becomes 193.8 kJ mol−1 for EP containing IFR, decreased by 36.6 kJ mol−1, which shows that IFR can catalyze decomposition and carbonization of EP.

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The diffusive and dynamic mechanical behavior of the DGEBA/1,3-BAC epoxy resin system was studied during water absorption. The diffusion of water was investigated at 100% relative humidity, by immersion of specimens in water at 60, 80 and 100°C. In all absorption experiments, water diffusion followed Fick's law. Diffusion coefficients and saturated water concentrations are given for these temperatures. The activation energy for diffusion was determined from the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. The value obtained was 31.2 kJ mol−1. Dynamic mechanical analysis of samples immersed in 100°C water and with various water contents showed both a shift of Tg, defined by thetanδ peak, to lower temperatures and a slight decrease in the dynamic modulus in the presence of water. These effects are probably a result of plasticization.

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The curing reactions of the epoxy resins tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM) and tetraglycidyl methylenebis (o-toluidine) (TGMBT) using diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM) and diethylenetriamine (DETA) as curing agents were studied kinetically by differential scanning calorimetry. The dynamic scans in the temperature range 20°–300°C were analyzed to estimate the activation energy and the order of reaction for the curing process using some empirical relations. The activation energy for the various epoxy systems is observed in the range 71.9–110.2 kJ·mol−1. The cured epoxy resins were studied for kinetics of thermal degradation by thermogravimetry in a static air atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg·min−1. The thermal degradation reactions were found to proceed in a single step having an activation energy in the range 27.6–51.4 kJ·mol−1.

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Introduction Epoxy resins are an important class of polymeric materials, characterised by the presence of more than one three-membered ring known as the epoxy (“epoxy” is derived from the Greek prefix “ep,” which means over and

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Introduction Epoxy resins are extensively used in surface coatings, adhesives, laminating, castings, matrices for advanced composites, electronic encapsulation materials, sealants, etc., due to their vast formulation

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Introduction Epoxy resin is one of the most important polymeric materials widely used in the polymer industry as coatings, structural adhesives, insulating materials, and polymeric composite materials, etc. [ 1 – 3 ]. The

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Introduction Epoxy resin is one of the most used thermosetting polymer matrix for its good mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. It plays an important role in industry. As a matrix of composites, the curing course of

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