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principle of equal treatment of men and women in relation to the ILO Convention. In the Levy judgment, 16 it was the national court itself which drew the attention of the Court of Justice to the applicability in France of the ILO Convention. In both cases

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The growing popularity of social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter has made a strong impact on the workplace. This essay provides insight into the nature of these relatively new, digital channels of communication as well as the socio-legal environment they function in. How does the presence of social media shape the dynamics of the employment relationship? Can a routine pre-interview Google search lead to discriminatory selection practice? Can negative comments posted online about the management serve as grounds for disciplinary action, including termination? We follow the parties to the employment relationship as they use or abuse the opportunities offered to them by social networking sites; and examine how the employees’ right to privacy and equal treatment is balanced against the employers’ lawful rights and interests. In search of key patterns as well as potential answers, cases from different countries in and outside of the European Union are studied.

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This article presents the findings of a qualitative research project which aimed to map out the political evaluations and the social effects of the changing concept of family and the changing forms of family life. By interviewing political and economic decision-makers we intended to highlight the goals and the motives of the differenct family policy approaches, the characteristic features of the family concepts reflected by the policy-makers' decisions, as well as the relationship between state family policies and labor market policies on the one hand, and equal treatment expectations concerning both genders, on the other. On the basis of interviews conducted with ordinary people we examined how much people's lives are practically infuenced by the family policy measures introduced by the political and the economic decision makers. According to our findings the two different categories of respondents saw specific family policy issues in different ways - however, their interpretations of family policy as a whole were rather convergent. The importance of providing equality of opportunity for men and women, increasing the female employment rate, acknowledging the plurality of family lifestyles, reconciling work and family life - being European expectations as well as conditions of a worthy life - seemed to be overshadowed by the demographic issues of fertility and procreation.

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This contribution aims to examine how the Hungarian Constitution applies in private relations through judicial activity and how the anti-discrimination legislation influences this tendency. The current codification procedure of the new civil code calls for a thorough theoretical background in order to answer how its provisions relate to the Constitution. After the general overview of the practice of courts and the Constitutional Court, the criticism of scholars developed on the issue will shed light on the weaknesses, but in spite of them, the overall success of the theory of indirect horizontal effect. The paper will also deal with the horizontal effect of a specific constitutional right, namely the right to equal treatment. I examine the fairly new legal instrument, the act on the prohibition of certain forms of discrimination, and demonstrate how this new practice influences the idea of horizontal effect in constitutional law and what implications it has on the new Civil Code afoot. I argue that the act at first sight exists independently from the requirement of horizontal application of fundamental rights, but, in fact, it implicates the necessity to reconsider in its light how the Constitution applies in private relations.

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Taxation and tax law cannot exist without biases because tax law can be seen per definition as a set of biases. Even if the state pursuing its fiscal policy cannot be neutral, one can expect to enforce the principle of equal treatment before the law. Besides, state intervention need be in proportion to the objectives of the policy of redistribution or economic stabilization. Also, fiscal policy need rely on a system of tax administration that operates in accordance with the principles of openness, good governance and legal certainty. It is ideal if the legal regulation of the procedure of tax administration is fully fledged. The legal regulation of the tax liability need be comprehensive and cover all the processes of gathering tax information, identifying the tax liability and collection of taxes. Moreover, tax administration and administrative law are inadvertently in a need of being completed by private law. Where tax authorities are not explicitly authorised by statutory law to act, they must rely on the principles that are in accordance with the constitutional order. Notably, in Hungary, there is no statutory law that would preclude the universal effect of the Civil Code, covering all the financial relations whether to be made between private persons or between private persons and the representative of the public. Finally, for the purposes of approximating an ideal tax system, the possibility of horizontal coordination must not be left out of consideration. In this context, legal and tax planning and the choice of legal and tax regimes by parties have come to the forefront. Bargaining (e.g., advance ruling) has not been strange from tax law either.

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, ‘ The Decline of Equal Treatment in World Economy ’ ( 2015 ) 1 Foreign Trade, Legal Studies , 1 – 13 . Martonyi , János , ‘ Brexit. Brexit? ’ ( 2016 ) 1 ELTE Law Journal

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.] http://www.naih.hu/ [Hungarian] 10 Equal Treatment Authority. [Egyenlő Bánásmód Hatóság.] http://www.egyenlobanasmod.hu/ [Hungarian] 11 Act C of 2012

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. Conroy , Anastasia , Eri Takahashi , Jeffrey Lidz and Colin Philips . 2009 . Equal treatment for all antecedents: How children succeed with Principle B . Linguistic Inquiry 40 . 446 – 486

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, solidarity, transparency, regard for the natural environment and mutual trust ( Dospial-Borysiak 2017 ). The concept of equality is widely perceived – it is not only limited to income equality, but focuses on equal opportunities and equal treatment. Social

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the tension between the homogenizing, generalizing equal treatment of all school students and the necessity of differentiating school students ( Helsper, 2002 ). These tensions can become particularly intense in the context of inclusion ( Frey & Buhl

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