Anti-Equilibrium (1971) was well ahead of its time in emphasising that (i) economics should draw from biology, rather than physics, as its methodological underpinning; (ii) evolutionary logic requires a different type of decision-making in simple, routine matters, as opposed to large and important decisions; (iii) the most important production processes are non-linear, with increasing returns to scale being the rule, rather than the exception in modern capitalist economies and — in conclusion — that there is no such thing as general equilibrium. In modern societies, goods and services are either in shortage (Socialism) or in a state of oversupply (Capitalism). It is either a buyers’ market or sellers’ market.
Authors:M. Zayed, F. Nour El-Dien, M. Hawash, and M. Fahmey
Gliclazide (GL, C15H21N3O3S) drug is used as non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus. The drug was investigated using thermal analysis (TA) measurements
(TG/DTG) and electron impact mass spectral (EI–MS) fragmentation at 70 eV techniques. The mass spectra of GL at different
values of ion source temperatures (400, 416, 425, and 440 K) are recorded and investigated. Semiempirical MO calculation,
using PM3 procedure, has been carried out on neutral molecule and positively charged species. These calculations included
bond length, bond order, bond strain, partial charge distribution, ionization energy, and heats of formation (ΔHf). PM3 procedure provides a basis for fine distinction among sites of initial bond cleavage, which is crucial to the rationalization
of subsequent fragmentation of the molecule. The primary fragmentation pathway in both TA and MS (at different values of ion
source temperature) is initiated by S–N bond rupture. TA and DTG show one main weight loss at 250.38 °C and four peaks at
271.6, 360.99, 427.93 and 479.17 °C in DTA, which may be attributed to various fragments. Also, the rate constant (K′) of thermal degradation has been tested isothermally at 210 and 600 °C. The calculated rate values are 9.6 × 10−3 and 0.33 × 10−3 s−1, respectively, and discussed. In MS, the effect of ion source temperature on mass spectral fragmentation processes is discussed
on the basis of energy considerations using quasi equilibrium theory.
Wetlands are naturally patchy habitat types that in fragmented landscapes are usually immersed inside a sea of anthropogenic habitat matrix. Decrease in patch size area and increase of patch isolation are two important components of wetland fragmentation. We investigated the effects of fragment area on bird species richness at four-level assemblages in a highly fragmented Mediterranean wetland system of Central Italy. Our results indicate that fragment area influenced differently the species richness for distinct assemblages in wetland fragments. Area was significantly correlated to total species richness, vagrant, breeding and
-related breeding species (PBS). A comparison of the various regression equations showed that the log-log relationship was the best-fitted model and the amount of variation (
of log-log regression line) was much higher for PBS and breeders than for vagrants. This pattern confirmed that when including vagrants in studies based on the equilibrium theory of island biogeography, the ‘insularity of islands’ is reduced. We also found that higher z-values (regression slope) were associated with PBS and breeding birds, supporting the idea of a ‘matrix effect’ on the studied species.
Authors:Birtalan Ilona Liliána, Kis Bernadett, and Bárdos György
). A General EquilibriumTheory of Contracts in Community Supported Agriculture . American Journal of Agricultural Economics , 97 ( 5 ), 1345 - 1359 . https:// doi.org/10.1093/ajae/aav029 . Story , M. , Kaphingst , K. M. , Robinson-O'Brien , R