Re-evaluation of the epidemiological associations of female sexual steroids and cancer risk. Chapter 6. In Estrogen versus cancer. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, 2009, (in press).
Some aspects of spaying-related urinary incontinence in the bitch still remain incompletely clarified. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of the disease among spayed dogs, to detect differences in risk related to the type of surgery, to describe the characteristics of incontinent bitches, to assess the influence of age at surgery on the onset of incontinence occurrence, and to assess the effectiveness and long-term side effects of oestrogen therapy in affected bitches. Among 750 bitches submitted to ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy, those showing spaying-related urinary incontinence were evaluated. Oestrogen replacement therapy consisted of administering an effective dose followed by an individual maintenance dose. The results showed that the disease occurred in 5% of neutered bitches, the type of surgery did not affect the disease occurrence, affected bitches frequently represented large or giant breeds or large-size mongrels, the body weight of the affected bitches at surgery was often ≥ 20 kg, the disease seems to be associated with tail docking, the age at surgery influences the onset of incontinence, with earlier occurrence in older bitches, and that a strong co-operation between owners and veterinarians is necessary to achieve successful response to oestrogen replacement therapy. Long-term administration seems to be unrelated to oestrogenic side effects.
Aydıner, A., Rıdvanoğulları, M., Anıl, D., Topuz, E., Nurten, R., Disci, R. (1997) Combined effects of epirubicin and tamoxifen on the cell-cycle phases in estrogen-receptor-negative Ehrlich ascites tumor cells
Environmental and plant oestrogens have been identified as compounds that when ingested, disrupt the physiological pathways of endogenous oestrogen actions and thus, act as agonists or antagonists of oestrogen. Although the risks of exposure to exogenous oestrogens (ExEs) are subject to scientific debate, the question of how ExE exposure affects the central nervous system remains to be answered. We attempt to summarise the mechanisms of oestrogenic effects in the central nervous tissue with the purpose to highlight the avenues potentially used by ExEs. The genomic and rapid, non-genomic cellular pathways activated by oestrogen are listed and discussed together with the best known interneuronal mechanisms of oestrogenic effects. Because the effects of oestrogen on the brain seem to be age dependent, we also found it necessary to put the age-dependent oestrogenic effects in parallel to their intra-and intercellular mechanisms of action. Finally, considering the practical risks of human ExE exposure, we briefly discuss the human significance of this matter. We believe this short review of the topic became necessary because recent data suggest new fields and pathways for endogenous oestrogen actions and have generated the concern that the hidden exposure of humans and domestic animal species to ExEs may also exert its beneficial and/or adverse effects through these avenues.