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komplexních spolecností (1st edn, Academia 2011 ). Bezemek , Ch. , ‘ Constitutional Core(s): Amendments, Entrenchments, Eternities and Beyond Prolegomenar to a Theory of

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After the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 settled the question in the West whether or not the world exists from eternity, a new debate arose concerning the demonstrability of the temporal creation of the world. Thomas Aquinas, of course, also joined in the controversy, and while accepting on faith the constitution of the council, argued for the logical possibility of the eternity of the world. In doing so, he had to refute all the counter-arguments provided against the possibility of an eternally created world.

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In the years 1994-1996 a painted vault of a house in the Roman civilian town Brigetio was excavated in present-day Komárom/Szőny, Hungary. The wall-paintings, which date back to the late 2nd-early 3rd cents. A.D., represent the personifications of the Four Seasons as female busts in the corners, four panthers in the middle of the side-walls and a circular central motive with the figure of a nude woman and a horse. On the basis of relevant astrological sources the paintings on the vault can be interpreted as symbolic representations of the spheres of the sky (the aer and the aether) and of eternity. The central medallion, which creates a delusive impression of an oculus, shows the fixed constellations Andromeda and Pegasus in the highest spheres of the sky. Parallel ideas from the Roman pagan art and the Christian / early Byzantine art indicate that the concept was widespread from the 1st to the 6th cents. A.D., being echoed also by the descriptions and illustrations in some sources of the late antiquity, like, for instance, the Christian Topography of Cosmas Indicopleustes.

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The author argues that the motif of ships cruising in full sail on Trimalchio's tomb, as opposed to the more common images of ships in a sepulchral context of the 1st c. A.D. Italy (typically ships devoid of sails in Berufsdarstellungen) picks on Trimalchio's proclaimed dismissal of philosophical education. Contrary to the eschatological concepts spread among his contemporaries, which were influenced by the Epicurean teaching, Trimalchio does believe in an afterlife and consciously integrates this motif in support of his statement that he never listened to a philosopher.

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This paper examines the possibility of a correlation between orthodoxy and brick burials, also investigating burials with brick and stone. Among the peoples inhabiting the Carpathian Basin the custom of brick burials had no direct antecedent. Based on our research brick burials seem to have been taken over from the Balkan, while concerning burials with stone the former Upper Hungary played an important role as well. The tradition can be traced back to an antique custom, persistent in orthodoxy, with the purpose of preserving the ephemeral and perishable body for eternity and assuring the deceased’s peace.

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Abstract  

In the Cioranian universe, language and time, both inextricably bound, both chillingly perverse, constitute icons of what is, contextually, an inexorable vision of the human condition. The pairing progenerates specters, phantasms of the void, pernicious and vacuous. It is at the perilous, indeed, the perfidious nexus of enunciation and endlessness—each dreaded, yet each ineluctable—that the dyad adopts an onerous cast. To the extent that discourse configures a cipher of perpetuity, and in that, conversely, any trace of eternity conjures a ceaseless extension of the word, of that very word which begets and embodies postmodern aporia, there lurks in consequence of discourse emitted a palpable trepidation, a confrontation with the ultimate precipice, the unconscionable, inscrutable continuity of nothingness. The deconstructive imperative overtakes the text, from which there is neither scriptural nor metaphysical exit. A curious dynamic, a tangled skein of haunting refrain.

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Summary

Even though the Mithraic epiclesis SAECULARIS has been explained with a link to the Ludi SAECULARES of 248, we prefer to elucidate it with the relief that we can observe between the two altars consecrated to MYTRAE SAECULARI, in Housesteads, in the civil parish of Bardon Mill in Northumberland, England, south of Broomlee.

Close to Hadrian's vallum, we can actually see a representation of Mithras, identified with Phanes, emerging from the cosmogonic egg with a zodiacal belt around him, lighting up the world. Concerning Jupiter (IOVI SEQULARI), moreover, on an Antoninianus of Claudius II “the Gothic”, this epiclesis expresses his responsibility for the kosmos in its cyclic eternity. Like Jupiter, Mithras is a sovereign of the universe.

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This essay undertakes the task of unravelling the history of the concept of the “Supreme Being” from the beginnings of Greek philosophy to the emergence of Christianity, with a special attention to a system of argumentation meant to demonstrate the existence - and eternity - of such a being. Referred to here as the “gradation argument”, it is related to the ontological proof, and thus our inquiry belongs to the discussion about the prehistory of the latter. The key authors in the development of the argument discussed are Xenophanes, Plato, Aristotle, and Cleanthes, but I devote a short excursus to the presence of the concept of the Supreme Deity in pseudo-Pythagorean and Middle Platonist authors, and to the epistemological aspect of the concept that connects it with the via eminentiae. Besides the historical inquiry, I examine the validity of the proof and propose a mathematical model that helps us to see its merits and limits.

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St. Thomas's views on the human soul and mind are shaped by Platonic as well as Aristotelian influences. His account of the human soul as the substantial principle and form of human life quickly becomes translated into a definition of the soul as an intelligent substance that exists on the boundary line of bodily and non-bodily substances as though it were on the horizon of time and eternity, according to Summa contra Gentiles, Book 11, Chapter 81. The human being as a whole is also described in this way in Summa Theologica 1.77.2. This 'boundary' image of the human being, allows St. Thomas in Summa Theologica 1.89.1 to account for how knowledge can occur in the absence of the body after death. It also enables Aquinas to explain in other texts how religious ecstasy can occur in life before death in that the sensory powers are supernaturally suspended to free the mind to see God. Thus non-bodily based knowledge before or after death with all the important implications involved are philosophically accounted for, at least up to a point, by Platonism. This is not to deny Aquinas's Aristotelianism but simply to note the existential importance of Platonic insights in his thinking also, especially when St. Thomas attempts to philosophically present his views on how knowledge occurs in human beings in the absence of the senses.

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Summary

Illuminated about 1475–1480, the Salting Hours(London, Victoria and Albert Museum) contains two miniatures whose precise relationship is at first sight problematic. Facing each other at the beginning of the Office of the Dead, one miniature shows a Last Judgment, the other a view of Purgatory. This juxtaposition of subjects appears at first glance to contravene Church doctrine, which taught that at the Final Reckoning, Purgatory would be emptied of its souls and cease to exist. However, the pairing of Purgatory and the Last Judgement in this case most likely modified the latter scene in a way that reminded viewers of the private judgment that each soul must undergo immediately after death. This conflation of the once and future judgments appears in medieval devotional literature, and Last Judgment scenes often allude to the Particular Judgment. Readers of the Salting Hours, therefore, would very likely have contemplated the Last Judgment as a warning of the post mortem judgment, when their fate was decided for all eternity, while its companion, Purgatory, offered them the hope that even sinners might ultimately achieve salvation, a fitting pair of images to open the Office of the Dead.

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