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The Polish Constitution adopted on 2 April 1997, for the first time after the war, contains a provision dedicated exclusively to protecting national and ethnic minorities, however without a definition of those two categories. The legislator extended the rights of national and ethnic minorities beyond those identified in the Article 35. The extension of such rights also results from international agreements. Thus far there is no statute regulating in a comprehensive and complete manner the situation of national and ethnic minorities (the Constitution does not make its adoption mandatory), the legal regulations concerning these issues are dispersed. The problem of legal definition of the national minority appeared in connection with the initiative of the formal recognition of the Union of People of Silesian Minority. Its application has been rejected by Polish courts for the reason of non-existence of such a minority and for the attempt of abuse of the electoral privilege granted to national minorities. The Supreme Court's position has been confirmed by the Chamber and then by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights. However the 2002 national census revealed a new phenomenon of the Silesian minority: 3% of the inhabitants of the region declared their affinity to Silesian nationality.

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predominantly White Western mainstream field of psychedelic medicine recognizes its role in cultural appropriation ( Herzberg & Butler, 2019 ), the perpetuation of systemic inequities, and the limitations of current treatment protocols for ethnic minority

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“There is no nation without history, there is no family without a family tree”

On Sibe ethnic nationalist aspirations through the example of a “family tree unification” story

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Ildikó Gyöngyvér Sárközi

The 1949 rise to power of the Chinese Communist Party (Zhongguo Gongchandang 中国共产党)1 was the beginning of a new era in China: the declaration of the People’s Republic of China (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo 中华人民共和国) was the first step on the “socialist road” leading to the creation of the long-coveted Chinese national unity. However, progress on the “socialist road” has posed many challenges for the ethnic minorities living within China’s borders. Mostly because melting into the Chinese national unity – paradoxically – became a symbol of the autonomy of ethnic minorities. In the spirit of this process, the ethnic nationalist aspirations of the Sibe (Chin. xibo zu 锡伯族; Sib. sibe uksura ᠰᡞᠪᡝ ᡠᡣᠰᡠᠷᠠ), the ethnic minority I studied, unfolded alongside the writing of Chinese national history. In my work, I follow these endeavors from the 1950s until recent times. At the center is a story that is seemingly about the knowledge base of Sibe ancestors, the family trees, and beyond that, about the “reunification” of a clan that was torn apart in 1764 by thousands of miles. But, in fact, it formulates much more than that: the idea of political martyrdom by the Sibe in the interest of creating the Chinese national unity. It is through this story that I wish to provide an insight into how Chinese national unity was created.

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Act 77 of 1993 on the rights of national and ethnic minorities defines the rights of all minority groups in Hungary in compliance with EU legislation. The Roma minority is the only officially acknowledged ethnic minority of Hungary. It is difficult to provide an accurate picture on the situation of the Roma population because ethnic status is officially regarded as sensitive and therefore data collection is not permitted (Act 63 of 1992). The paper highlights the failures and the promising attempts of Hungary’s Roma integration policies, and the great efforts taken in this country and the difficulties of progress. It also demonstrates the importance of local initiatives and the contribution of civil organisations, the support which they would deserve, because without human solidarity and compassion no top down initiative can be rewarding.

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. , & Bry , B. H. ( 2007 ). The protective effects of ethnic identity for alcohol and marijuana use among Black young adults . Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology

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The aim of this study is to draw attention to national minorities as a group distinct from immigrants. Additionally, it attempts to introduce a global perspective on national minorities, specifically on Hungarians in Central Europe, where, instead of concentrating on the respective countries separately, it adopts a comparative approach. As there are no specific theories addressing the issue of national minorities from the educational point of view, immigrant theories might be a useful starting point. For example, Ogbu's categorization of minorities on the basis of voluntariness (free will) allows us to distinguish between immigrants and national minorities as two distinct categories. The applicability of Ogbu's theory on national minorities gives us a good opportunity to test the utility of his thesis in European context. Using empirical evidence from a nationally representative survey carried out in the Carpathian Basin I find little support for Ogbu's thesis. According to the data, there is a high discrepancy between the autochthonous minorities examined in the study which questions the possibility of generalisation of minorities based solely on voluntariness. Additionally, the empirical analysis testing Ogbu's concept on the example of Hungarians does not favour the thesis of oppositional culture. The Hungarian national minority as an involuntary group is not significantly disadvantaged with respect to educational attainment (with the exception of Slovakia). On the contrary, they seem to catch up with the majority i.e. the gap between majority and minority appears to be closing.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Erika Marek, Réka Kalmár, Nóra Faubl, Zsuzsa Orsós, and Tímea Németh

] 7 Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Demographic characteristics of ethnic minorities in Hungary. [Központi Statisztikai Hivatal. A hazai nemzetiségek demográfiai jellemzői.] Statisztikai

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. , Trimble , J. E. , & Zayas , L. H. ( 2002 ). Research ethics for mental health science involving ethnic minority children and youth . American Psychologist, 57, 1024 – 1039 . 10.1037/0003-066X.57

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Police ethnic profiling in Hungary — An empirical research

Ideals of systemicity and axiomatisability between Utopianism and Heuristic assertion

Acta Juridica Hungarica
Authors: András Kádár and András Pap

Profiling by law enforcement agencies has become one of the most widely researched and debated questions in legal discussions relating to ethnic and racial discrimination in the criminal justice system. This research report highlights the findings of a recent pilot research project organized by the Hungarian Helsinki Committee that focused on police stop and search practices and their discriminatory effects on Hungary’s largest ethnic minority, the Roma. As part of the research, for the first time in Hungary, broad-spectrum data collection on the ethnic aspects and general efficiency of ID checks has been conducted.

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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors: Marjut Anttonen, Anna Keszeg, Timea Párkonyi Soos, Micheline Lebarbier, and Sabine Winker-Piepho

Pasi Hannonen & Bo Lönnqvist & Gábor Barna (eds.): Ethnic minorities and power. Helsinki: Fonda Publishing, 2001, 195 pages Dóra Czégényi-Vilmos Keszeg: Emberek, szövegek, hiedelmek. Tanulmányok [Menschen, Texte, Volksglauben. Studien]. Kolozsvár: Kriza János Néprajzi Társaság 1, 2001, 207 Seiten Vilmos Keszeg: Mezoségi hiedelmek [Volksglauben in der Region Mezôség]. Marosvásárhely: Mentor Kiadó, 1999, 384 Seiten A propos de La Fille Difficile, un conte-type afriçain, 2001, Sous la direction de Veronika Görög-Karady et Christiane Seydou. Paris: CNRS-Éditions, CD-Rom Gerhard Schmied : Lieber Gott, gütigste Frau … Eine empirische Untersuchung von Fürbittbüchern. Passagen und Tendenzen. Studien zur materialen Religions- und Kultursoziologie, hrsg. von Michael N. Ebertz, Bd. 4. Konstanz: Universitäts-Verlag Konstanz, 1998, 137 Seiten

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