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Az evéssel kapcsolatos civilizációs zavarok gyakoribbá válásának hátterében a kulturális hatások lényegesek. Ezek között a nemzeti identitásvesztés fontos lehet. A nemzeti identitás kialakulásában az ételekkel és étkezéssel kapcsolatos hagyományok szerepe alapvető. A nemzeti szimbólumok között számos étel található, amelyeket gyakran használunk a nemzetek jellemzésében. Az ételek fontos szerepet töltenek be a kulturális emlékezetben is. A közös emlékezet jelentősége nagy az identitásban, s az ételekre, ételkészítésre való emlékezés a kultúrákban fontos etnikai összetartó erő. Ezt segíti az ételek és az étkezés időt strukturáló hatása is. A globalizáció korában a nemzeti ételek segítik a speciális nemzeti karakter megőrzését, de az európai szokásokhoz való alkalmazkodás megkívánja az ételkészítés átalakulását is. A jövő kérdése, hogy ez a hatás mennyire jár a nemzeti identitás csökkenésével, és fokozza-e az evéssel kapcsolatos patológiás megnyilvánulások gyakoriságát.

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In the late mediaeval and early modern period scattered communities of the Karaites (i.e. non-Talmudic Jews) settled in several regions of Eastern Europe such as the Crimea, Poland and Lithuania. In the 18th and 19th centuries the Karaites printed their books (mostly exegetical and theological works in Hebrew) in several Karaite and Rabbanite typographies. Nevertheless, after 1917 the centre of Karaite printing shifted from the Russian Empire to interwar Poland and Lithuania. Surprisingly, a tiny Karaite community of interwar Poland and Lithuania (ca. 800 individuals) had been publishing as many as five periodicals in three languages! Furthermore, the Karaites also printed quite a number of separate brochures and leaflets, and published articles in non-Karaite periodicals. From the 1930s the Karaite community started losing its Judeo-Karaite identity and accepted a new Turkic ethnic self-identification which was based mostly on the use of the Turkic Karaim language and a few pseudo-scholarly theories testifying to the non-Semitic origins of the Karaites. The renaissance of Karaite printing was stopped in 1939, with the Soviet intervention in Poland and the beginning of the Second World War. The paper analyses the main tendencies in the development of the Karaite printing in Poland and Lithuania in the interwar period. A special emphasis is placed upon the role of printing in the unusual transformation of the East European Karaites’ ethnic identity — from pious non-Talmudic Jewish believers to an isolated ethnic enclave with a bogus Khazaro-Turkic identity.

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Az Etnikai Csoportok Identitása Kérdőív (MEIM-H) validálása és pszichometriai jellemzői magyarországi roma mintán

The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM): Psychometric properties and validation on a Hungarian Gypsy/Roma sample

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Tünde Szabó
,
Éva Susánszky
,
J. Ágnes Lukács
,
Ildikó Danis
, and
Beáta Dávid

://doi.org/10.1080/1369183032000170204 Dandy , J ., Durkin , K ., McEvoy , Barber , B. L ., & Houghton , S . ( 2008 ). Psychometric properties of multigroup ethnic identity measure (MEIM) scores with Australian adolescents from diverse ethnocultural

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Roma – nem roma interetnikus párkapcsolatok és identitás

Roma–non-Roma interethnic relationships and identity

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Cinderella Komolafe
,
Georgina Csordás
, and
Beáta Dávid

, romának és magyarnak is érzem magam” (25,24%); és az asszimilált „Roma származású vagyok, de inkább magyarnak érzem magam” (19,96%). A másik mérőeszköz a MEIM (Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure) magyar változata volt, mely 12 kérdést tartalmazott, és

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Estonian museums primarily perceive the concept of national identity as ethnic identity, in relation to ethnic origin, local folk culture, habits, religion and rituals ( Lepik et al. 2014 :71). National identity researcher Anthony D. Smith has named this

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of names: e.g., Kováč Štefan, Vargová Katarína (with a Slovak family name variant + Slovak first name variant + Hungarian order). Hungarian name variants and/or parts of names may refer to the ethnic identity of the name bearer. On name plates, this

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In Galicia, in the multiethnic borderland of the early 1830s, we observe a slow completion of cultural separation and marginalization processes and shrinkage of integration and assimilation strategies as ways of ethnic identity-building. This process of cultural and linguistic separation of Ukrainians towards Poles culminated in Galicia in the 1880s and 1890s with the attainment of a mature political phase through Ukrainian Galicians. This paper analyses the origins of this process through the biography and works of Markiyan Shashkevych.

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Ethnic identities are socially defined cultural contracts. Reworkings take place according to historic changes as well as in specific social situations. To speak about identity of 'X'-s and of 'Y'-s is a complex issue mainly in diasporic contexts where a uniform or homogeneous identity of the specific ethnic categories and groups is hardly accepted. In spite of this, in public discourse it is common to speak about the identity of Hungarian-Americans for instance. Based on historical and contemporary investigations of Hungarian immigrants and their descendants in the United States the paper analyses the complexity of ethnic identities. It does so in particular by raising the problem of ethnic identity from two directions: on the one hand, taking into account the differing situation of those who emigrated and of their descendants and, on the other hand, on the basis of theoretical considerations. Variants of ethnic self and group identification is related to historical flows of immigrants, size and composition of population concerned as well as to power relations.

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Deconstructing the diverse meaning behind the common metaphor “Little America”, this paper explores widely disparate ethnic identity conceptions and inter-ethnic relations in two regions of Transylvania, showing them as dependent on the ways in which each region was integrated into changing patterns of global labor. Regional ethnic identity and relations in the Jiu Valley coal producing region and in the mixed agro-industrial Fǎgǎraş zone vary greatly. In the former, ethnic identity was downplayed and inter-ethnic relations always kept on an even keel owing to the particular process of regional settlement and the common integration of the region’s ethnic groups into the hard coal industry that dominated the Valley from the middle of the 18th century. In the latter region, ethnic relations were frequently tense due to a highly discrete ethnic-based division of labor and organization of political hierarchy. Despite these differences, citizens of each region expressed their ethnic dynamic through use of the “Little America” metaphor. However, in the Jiu Valley this referred to alleged ethnic peace of cooperating national groups, while in Fǎgǎraş this notion referred to the dream of struggling for social mobility and differentiation. The paper thus shows how such basic ethnic conceptions, shaped by the treatment of regional labor in successive phases of the global economy, influence a wide range of differing attitudes toward diverse social and political processes, including socialist development policies and the modern global labor market.

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Drawing on immigrant press sources and church publications, the paper describes and analyses the saint's day festivals of Hungarians who inmigrated to the United States. It traces customs related to pilgrimages from the end of the 19th century to WWII. The primary goal in retaining or reviving this tradition was to preserve religious continuity, boost national awareness, win the recognition of American society and create ethnic identity above group affiliations. Also, the church festivals held by Hungarians in the United States played partly the same role as the practice in the home country: the religious function predominated, followed by the opportunity to get together and the intention of strengthening cohesion of the community. However, it gradually lost the character of a continuation of old-world experience while it gained new symbolic meanings.

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