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Metalinguistik

Sprache und Texttypen der heutigen ungarischen Folklore

Studia Slavica
Author:
Géza Balázs

The European equivalent of “anthropological linguistics” is “ethnolinguistics” or “metalinguistics”.The study proves that since the 19th century the ethnolinguistic approach is constant, although not emphatic, in the Hungarian linguistics.

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The present piece of research was carried out taking into account the scientific achievements of the Moscow Ethnolinguistic School, founded by N. I. Tolstoy in the 80's of the last century, which entails the study of the vocabulary of

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This article deals with the hypothetical connection between the Russian ethnic slur kolbít ‘a Kazakh, especially rural’ used by Russian speakers in Kazakhstan up to the end of the 20th century and the ancient tribe phtheirophagoi ‘lice-eaters’ mentioned by many authors in Antiquity. This tribe was placed by Ptolemy to Asiatic Sarmatia beyond the Lower Volga, the present-day location of the Kazakhstan steppes. Young Russian-speaking respondents have almost forgotten the meaning and connotations of the word kolbit, but their elders remember it as a very derogative term deriving from Kazakh bit ‘a louse’ and even translate it as ‘a lice-eater.’ However, it is impossible to etymologize kolbit as a word of Kazakh origin. It may be of Russian origin connected with the root kol(o)b- ‘something round’ or ‘something chopped off’ (in particular, ‘a wooden block’) compared with the Russian ethnic slur churka ‘a non-ethnic Russian, especially from Central Asia’ (literally, ‘a chunk of unworked wood’). These slurs could be linked with the rite of circumcision practiced by Muslims. The article also contains an ethnolinguistic analysis of folk nicknames with louse-components based on lexicographical data and field records gathered in Kazakhstan in 2012 and 2013.

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Studia Slavica
Author:
Н. І. Пашкова

Метою даної статті є дослідження розвитку фонетичної форми та семантики, визначення походжен-ня та поширення слова салаш у говірках карпатського ареалу, а також у континуумі балканських та слов’янських мов. Робота проведена в руслі традиційних проблем балканських та карпатських сту-дій, кінцевою метою яких є збирання, опис семантики та вивчення походження ідіоетнічної куль-турної лексики давнього пастушого населення цього етномовного континууму, зрозуміти шляхи і час утворення цього етнокультурного феномена та його спільної лексики.

Матеріалом для аналізу у статті послужили загальномовні, спеціальні та діалектні словники, а також діалектологічні атласи та лінгвістичні карти слов’янських і балканських мов (української, російської, словенської, болгарської, македонської, сербської, словацької, польської, румунської та ін.) та їх карпатських діалектів. У дослідженні використано методи семантико-фонетичного аналі-зу варіантів слова у лексикографічних джерелах, інтерпретації лінгвістичних карт, етимологічного аналізу.

Лексема салаш, яка входить до карпато-балканського етнокультурного словника, давно була за-писана діалектологами і її семантика вивчалася багатьма дослідниками мов і діалектів цього ареалу, картографувалася у численних діалектних та ареальних лінгвістичних атласах. Але щодо походжен-ня цього слова висловлювалися різні припущення і єдиної думки в дослідників до цього часу не було. На основі проведеного дослідження ми визначаємо номінативну модель, за якою утворено цей карпатизм угорського походження, як дериваційно-метонімічну фінітивну модель «функція – дім», лексему за утворенням як девербативний фінітив із первісною семантикою ‘місце зупинки, ночів-лі’, утворений від угорського дієслова száll ‘зупинятися на ночівлю’.

Порівняльне вивчення семантики діалектного слова салаш дозволило визначити такий розвиток його основних та похідних значень: ‘місце для ночівлі’, ‘сезонне тимчасове житло’, ‘будівля для до-машніх тварин’, ‘будівля для пастухів’, ‘господарство пастухів у горах’, ‘стадо’, ‘табір’, ‘будь-яке тим-часове житло’. Порівняльно-історичне дослідження, проведене із залученням широкого діалектного матеріалу різних мов досліджуваного континууму, дозволило остаточно прийняти угорську етимо-логію слова салаш, яке спочатку було поширене в карпатських говірках на позначення пастушого тимчасового житла, а згодом проникло в сусідні мови усіх Балкан і всієї Славії, змінивши свою фонетичну форму та семантику від конкретного до широкого значення ‘будь-яке тимчасове житло з хворосту та гілок’.

The aim of this paper is to study the development of the phonetic form and semantics of the word salash, to determine its origin and distribution in the dialects of the Carpathian area as well as in the continuum of Balkan and Slavic languages. The work is carried out in line with the traditional problems of Balkan and Carpathian studies, the ultimate goal of which is to describe the semantics and study the origin of the idioethnic cultural vocabulary of the ancient pastoral population of this ethnolinguistic continuum, and to understand the ways and the time of formation of this ethnocultural phenomenon.

General, special, and dialect dictionaries as well as dialect atlases and linguistic maps of Slavic and Balkan languages (Ukrainian, Russian, Slovenian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian, Slovak, Polish, Romanian, etc.) and their Carpathian dialects served as the material for analysis in the paper. The research uses methods of semantic-phonetic analysis of word variants in lexicographic sources, the interpretation of linguistic maps, and etymological analysis.

The lexeme salash, which is part of the Carpatho-Balkan ethnocultural dictionary, has long been recorded by dialectologists, its semantics has been studied by many researchers of languages and dialects of this area, and it has been mapped in numerous dialect and areal linguistic atlases. Various assumptions have been made about the origin of this word, and researchers have not yet agreed. Based on our research, we define the nominative model, according to which this Carpathianism of Hungarian origin was formed as a derivational-metonymic finitive model “function – home”, and the lexeme as a deverbative with the original semantics from the Hungarian verb száll ‘to stay overnight’.

The comparative study of the semantics of the dialect word salash allowed to determine the following development of its basic and derived meanings: ‘a place to spend the night’, ‘seasonal temporary housing’, ‘a building for cattle’, ‘a building for shepherds’, ‘the shepherds’ farm in the mountains’, ‘a herd’, ‘a camp’, ‘any temporary building’. The comparative-historical study conducted with the involvement of a wide dialect material from various languages of the continuum under study allowed us to finally accept the Hungarian etymology of the word salash, which was first used in Carpathian dialects to denote shepherd’s temporary dwelling, and subsequently penetrated into the neighbouring languages of the whole Balkan and Slavic area, developing its phonetic form and semantics from the specific to the broad meaning ‘any temporary dwelling made of firewood and branches’.

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The dialect lexical representations of notions from the “public opinion” sphere are the subject of the research. The motivational analysis of such words allowed to reveal the key meanings “showing the attitude to the person”, “assessment”, “influence on the person”, and “the person’s image”. The native Russian speaker bases on them the choice of the motivational feature for the words that represent the lexical-semantic field “public opinion”.

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The paper presents the results of a study of metaphorical vocabulary with the meaning of assessment of social change. The analysis involves common Russian vocabulary as well as the material of Russian dialects. Previously unpublished expeditionary records of dialect speech are introduced into academic discussion. Special attention is paid to the onomasiological analysis of linguistic facts. Four groups of motives are revealed: the motives of destruction (loosening, turning inside out, and death); spatially dynamic motives (moving away and disappearance); the motives of qualitative changes (the loss of one’s own properties and status, the acquisition of similarity with representatives of a foreign nation, the acquisition of worse properties, cooling down); and the motives of confusion (mixing of different cultures and disorientation). It is shown that the bearers of traditional folk culture tend to evaluate the changes of any kind as undesirable. A disapproving assessment of social change is due to the orientation of traditional culture toward strict adherence to customs.

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Архетипний образ вогню в лінгвопросторі українських паремій і замовлянь

The Archetypal Image of Fire in Language Space of Ukrainian Paroemias and Verbal Folk Magic

Studia Slavica
Authors:
А. В. Висоцький
and
Ю. С. Макарець

This paper deals with the linguocultural analysis of the semantic content of the archetypal symbol of fire. It is one of the deep mental formations, a manifestation of the collective subconscious, the generic memory, so its shades of meaning are best expressed in micro- contexts that retain stereotypical associations and evaluations for a certain ethnos as well as in the linguistic formulas of word magic, which is inherent in primitive consciousness.

Such are the texts of paroemias and verbal folk magic, on the basis of which the research is conducted. Although ancient Ukrainians knew the cult of fire and thought that it had a divine power, the analyzed linguistic microcontexts did not show the lingualization of deification of fire. Fire appears as an ambivalent element, destructive but simultaneously life-giving, with the predominance of negative marking. Fire mostly is opposed to water, which is also an ambivalent element but with a positive beginning. Ukrainian paroemiology predominantly testifies stereotypical associative similarity of fire and misfortune or trial, more rarely – of fire and strong destructive feelings or restless nature. Analyzed Ukrainian proverbs do not contain Christian understanding of fire, only ancient, pagan ideas about it. In verbal magic, fire is a part of homeopathic magic, an element that can scare off a dis- ease or burn it, that is, cure the like with the like. More rarely, fire is a part of love magic based on similarity of natural fire and the fire of feelings. Of particular interest in this con- text is the image of ‘fiery bugalo’ that burns, causing a love fever. This image is connected with the cult of the seductive serpent, a mythical creature that can install a ‘fire of love’ in the heart of a man, and appears to women as tempting young man.

The mediator of the idea of fire is also the word-concept ‘candle’. This symbol im- plements the semantics of faith and mind. In religious tradition, it becomes the emblem of the church and the spiritual light. Paroemiological units mostly attest to its use in combi- nation with the word-concept ‘devil’. Such microcontexts can be explained by the ability of people to pick up and summarize the paradoxical manifestations of everyday life. Ethno- graphic studies suggest that the semantics of sun and lightning also intersect with the sym- bolic meaning of fire, although this is not confirmed by the analyzed paroemological micro- contexts.

The cognitive basis of such symbolization are the mechanisms of associative assimila- tion and comparison through which the primeval people cognized and structured the world. The symbol of fire becoming the basis of paroemological and magical microcontexts is sometimes not lingualized directly and manifests itself through typical scenarios with pred- icates to smoke, to burn, to scorch, etc.

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beliefs? Is it because different countries have different ethno-linguistic groups which have different values and beliefs? Or, is it because these values are shaped by the discussion within the political community (a country), which leads its members to

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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Nicholas Spiers
,
Beatriz Caiuby Labate
,
Anna O. Ermakova
,
Patrick Farrell
,
Osiris Sinuhé González Romero
,
Ibrahim Gabriell
, and
Nidia Olvera

research gaps and encourages further investigation. Some of these texts delve into the archeological and archival record to consider historical Indigenous mushroom practices. Ethnolinguistic studies and analysis of Indigenous taxonomy are included to

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The problem of Slavic–Finno-Ugric cultural and language contacts is one of the stable scientific dominants of Slavic studies. Though the lexical units remain the basis of etymological and ethnolinguistic reconstructions, phraseology has also recently become increasingly the object of research on Hungarian–Slavic and Slavic–Hungarian language contacts. A special place here is occupied by the analysis of the Finno-Ugric–Russian phraseological interaction. The paper offers a linguistic interpretation of 7 Hungarian–Russian phraseological parallels. The comparison with the Slavic and other Indo-European material helps to clarify their historical and etymological interpretation proposed by the famous Hungarian folklorist and paremiologist Gábor O. Nagy

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