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D. Morris Primate Ethology Weindenfeld & Nicolson London 347 368 . A

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Ismeretes, hogy az újszülöttek, illetve a csecsemők néhány hónapos korig a kezük ügyébe kerülő testrészeket és tárgyakat megfogják. A szerző rutin-ultrahangvizsgálatok során az utolsó trimeszterben lévő magzatok fogóreflexének érvényesülését a méhben véletlenszerűen figyelte meg. Hat magzat a köldökzsinórját, egy a scrotumát és egy a péniszét fogta meg. Színkódolt Doppler ultrahangkészülékkel vizsgálva, az arteria umbilicalis véráramlás-sebesség hullámformáiban a leszorítás másodpercekig tartó átmeneti zavart okozott. Ezután a magzatok a köldökzsinórt elengedték. A napokkal-hetekkel később világra jött újszülöttek egészségesek voltak. A szerző következtetése, hogy a magzat fogóreflexének aktivitása csupán egy ártalmatlan, átmeneti epizód a magzat életében. A fogóreflexnek csupán etológiai jelentősége van, bizonyítja a prae- és postnatalis aktivitás átmenetét. A fogóreflex sztereotip ismétlődése a magzatokban, újszülöttekben és csecsemőkben bizonyíték a genetikailag örökölt mivoltra.

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Automated behavioural observations are routinely used in many fields of biology, including ethology, behavioural ecology and physiology. When preferences for certain resources are investigated, the focus is often on simple response variables, such as duration and frequency of visits to choice chambers. Here we present an automated motion detector system that use passive infrared sensors to eliminate many drawbacks of currently existing methods. Signals from the sensors are processed by a custom-built interface, and after unnecessary data is filtered by a computer software, the total time and frequency of the subject’s visits to each of the choice chambers are calculated. We validate the detector system by monitoring (using the system) and in the same time video recording mating preferences of zebra finches in a four-way choice apparatus. Manual scoring of the video recordings showed very high consistency with data from the detector system both for time and for frequency of visits. Furthermore, the validation revealed that if we used micro-switches or light barriers, the most commonly applied automatic detection techniques, this would have resulted in approximately 22% less information compared to our lossless system. The system provides a low-cost alternative for monitoring animal movements, and we discuss its further applicability.

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Incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is on the rise and yet, despite decades of research, the exact ethology of the disease still remains a mystery. The autoimmune reaction, which ultimately leads to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, causing insulin deficiency and T1D, is a result of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Precisely, what are these environmental factors? Current popular opinion implies these pathogens, such as viruses, especially human enteroviruses, are a triggering factor. On the other hand, the hygiene hypotheses states in which the increase of autoimmune diseases, such as T1D, can, in fact, be explained by the decrease of infections, and infectious agents, more like viruses, actually serve as a defense mechanism, therefore, protect us from developing certain autoimmune diseases. Additionally, the relationship between the gut microbiota and autoimmune diseases is currently gaining increased interest including relative research now demonstrating how the guts immune system plays a crucial role in the development of autoimmune diseases. This literature review aims to evaluate these three popular suspects: Viral infections, hygiene and gut microbiota, in relation to their potential triggering effect on T1D and their close relationship to one another.

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Rewriting the book on human female sexuality: New thinking on old questions

A review of The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality, by Randy Thornhill and Steven W. Gangestad. Oxford University Press (2008), 424 pages, £26.99 ($49.95), ISBN: 0195340990 (paperback).

Author: Mary K. Shenk

, classification, and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of females Ethology and Sociobiology 1 3 40 . S

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No Evolutionist is an Island

A review of Kevin N. Laland and Gillian R. Brown (2011) Sense and Nonsense. Evolutionary perspectives of human behaviour Oxford: Oxford University Press. 270 pages, ISBN: 978-0-19-958696-7

Author: Diana S. Fleischman

the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments Ethology and Sociobiology 11 4–5 375 424 .

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BERECZKEI, T., VÖRÖS, A., GÁL, A. and BERNÁTH, L. (1997): Resources, attractiveness, family commitment; Reproductive decisions in mate choice. Ethology , 103 , 681-699. Resources, attractiveness, family commitment; Reproductive

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Authors: Tamás Bereczkei, Petra Gyuris, Panna Köves and László Bernáth

in a modern society. Ethology and Sociobiology, 17 , 23-45. Mate choice, marital success, and reproduction in a modern society. Ethology and Sociobiology

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Psychology and the grand unified theory

A review of Evolution and Genetics for Psychology by Daniel Nettle, Oxford University Press (2009) 320 pages, ISBN 978-0-19-923151-5 (Paperback)

Author: David W. Dickins

. N. Tinbergen 1963 On aims and methods of ethology Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 20 410 433

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Mealey, L., Daood, C. and Krage, M. (1996): Enhanced memory for faces of cheaters. Ethology and Sociobiology , 17, 120-127. Enhanced memory for faces of cheaters. Ethology and Sociobiology

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