Eugenol and isoeugenol were investigated by means of thermal analysis. It was observed that eugenol and isoeugenol have one characteristic endothermic effect at 260° and 290°C, respectively, and two exothermic effects in the temperature intervals 270°–590°C. The DTA curves of the benzoyl esters of eugenol and isoeugenol begin with endothermic effects at 70° and 95°C, respectively, which coincide with the melting points of these compounds.
A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been established for simultaneous analysis of eugenol and piperine in the Siddha formulation Amukkara choornam. TLC was performed on aluminum foil-backed silica gel 60F
plates with toluene-ethyl acetate 9:3 as mobile phase. Calibration plots for both eugenol and piperine were linear in the range 1–12 μg. The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots were indicative of good linear relationships with
= 0.9979 and 0.9980 for eugenol and piperine respectively. The
values of eugenol and piperine were 0.73 ± 0.03 and 0.28 ± 0.01, respectively. The method was validated for sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Minimum detectable amounts were 0.121 ng per band for eugenol and 0.0102 μg per band for piperine. The eugenol and piperine content of the formulation were 0.207 μg g
and 1.992 mg g
, respectively. Recovery of eugenol and piperine was greater than 97%. The method enabled simple, sensitive, precise, accurate, and specific analysis of eugenol and piperine in the formulation.
Authors:Amanda Santos, Gilberto Chierice, Kenneth Alexander, Alan Riga, and Ellen Matthews
Eugenol is the main volatile compound extracted oil from clove bud, Syzygiumaromaticum L., and used in traditional medicine, as a bactericide, fungicide, anesthetic, and others. Its extraction was performed using
hydrodistillation which is the most common extraction technique. Its components and thermal behavior were evaluated using
gas chromatography (GC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which provide a better characterization of these natural
compounds. This extracted product was compared to the standard eugenol results. The GC results suggested ~90% eugenol was
found in the total extracted oil, and some of its boiling characteristics were 270.1 °C for peak temperature and 244.1 J g−1 for the enthalpy variation.
Authors:Mihai Rusu, Constantin Marutoiu, Ion Sandu, Dumitru Tita, Ioan Gogoasa, Constantin-Horia Barbu, and Andreea Popescu
Samples of clove, nutmeg, and cinnamon have been extracted by maceration with ethanol for 24 h and with aqueous ethanol 48 h. Rhizomes of herb bennet (
) and calamus (
) and roots of valerian (
) have been subjected to aqueous hydrolysis then extraction with dichloromethane. The active principles from the samples were separated on silica gel HPTLC plates, with pure (standard) and dental (pharmaceutical) eugenol, using
-heptane-ethyl acetate 60+40 (
) as mobile phase. After development the components were visualized in UV light at
= 254 nm. The presence of eugenol was confirmed by GC-MS.
Authors:K. Pramod, U. K. Ilyas, M. Singh, Y. T. Kamal, S. Ahmad, S. H. Ansari, and J. Ali
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the quantification of eugenol from nanostructured drug delivery systems was successfully developed and validated. The mobile phase consisted of n-hexane:acetone (7:3, v/v), and the densitometric scanning was performed in the absorbance mode at 280 nm. The method was valid with respect to linearity and range, accuracy, precision, specificity, detection limit (DL), and quantitation limit (QL). The linearity of the method was established by a correlation coefficient value of 0.9930 ± 0.0013. The precision was tested by checking intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (intermediate precision) variations. The method was established to be precise by low relative standard deviation (RSD) values for different concentration of eugenol. The results of the recovery studies of eugenol from preanalyzed samples demonstrated the accuracy of the method. The specificity of the developed method for the analysis of eugenol in the nanoemulsion gel and nanoparticles samples was confirmed by comparing the spectra obtained in standard and sample analysis. The DL and QL were determined to be 31.41 and 95.17 ng band−1, respectively, for the HPTLC method. The forced degradation studies revealed on eugenol established the effectiveness of the developed and validated method. The developed and validated HPTLC method was found to be a stability-indicating one, as indicated by the results of forced degradation studies, for its use during the accelerated stability studies of the nanoemulsion gels and nanoparticles of eugenol.
Eugenol is used as a flavor in the food industry, has a variety of biological activity, and can serve as a biomarker. Because eugenol is present in the leaves of
Nees and Eberm., which are used as a spice, a sensitive and reliable quantitative high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantification of the compound in the leaves of the plant. A methanol extract of the powder of dried leaves of
Nees and Eberm. was applied to silica gel 60 F
TLC plates and these were developed with toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid, 90 + 10 + 01 (
), as mobile phase. Detection and quantitation was performed by densitometry at
= 280 nm. The accuracy of the method was checked by conducting recovery studies for two different levels of eugenol; the average recovery was found to be 98.39%. The average eugenol content, as estimated by use of the proposed method, was 5.405 mg g
. The HPTLC method proposed for the quantitative monitoring of eugenol in
leaf powder is rapid, simple, and precise.
Authors:Jogender Lalla, Purnima Hamrapurkar, and Abhishek Singh
Eugenol, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, a biomarker constituent of the volatile oil present in the leaves of
, and which is used topically as a dental analgesic, has been extracted from an authenticated sample of leaves from the plant and compared with a reference standard to confirm the presence of the compound. The compound from the leaves was characterized by spectroscopic analysis. The reference standard material was used for quantitative estimation of the amount of eugenol present in the volatile oil extracted from
and from a capsule formulation of
obtained commercially. A rapid, accurate, and specific HPTLC method, developed and validated in this laboratory, was used for this purpose. The method proposed can be used for routine analysis of
leaves and of herbal formulations containing the leaves.
The hydrodistilled essential oil from flowering aerial parts of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) growing desolately in South India was examined to determine its composition. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC–FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC– MS). Forty-one constituents were identified, representing 99.4% of the total oil. The main components were identified as eugenol (57.1%), α-bulnesene (15.6%), and β-caryophyllene (14.2%). Phenylpropanoids (57.3%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (31.6%) were the prominent groups of compounds, followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (6.5%), oxygenated monoterpenes (3.0%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.0%). The compound α-bulnesene was identified for the first time in this report. The essential oil was found to be eugenol–α-bulnesene–β-caryophyllene chemotypes.
Authors:M. Tóth, P. Landolt, I. Szarukán, A. Nagy, and J. K. Jósvai
The addition of synthetic eugenol and benzyl acetate to the known floral chemical
and moth attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the silver Y
moth Autographa gamma, an important noctuid pest. Traps baited
with the ternary blend caught 2 to 6 times more A. gamma moths
than traps baited with phenylac-etaldehyde alone. Both female and male moths
were attracted, supposedly in the natural sex ratio of the local population.
More A. gamma were caught when the blend was formulated in
dispenser types with higher release rates. Traps baited with the ternary lure in
polyethylene bag dispensers caught 20% to 34% as many moths as were caught in
traps baited with synthetic sex pheromone, suggesting that this improved
bisexual lure could be efficient enough to yield a new tool for detection and
monitoring of female and male A. gamma, for more reliable plant
The same ternary lure also improved trap catches of moths over phenylacetaldehyde
alone for the plusiinae pests MacDunnoughia confusa (in Europe)
and Autographa californica (in North America) and for the
Noctuinae cutworm Xestia c-nigrum (in North America).
Authors:O. S. Monteiro, A. G. Souza, L. E. B. Soledade, N. Queiroz, A. L. Souza, V. E. Mouchrek Filho, and A. F. F. Vasconcelos
.5–4.5%) [ 2 ]. It unites the scent and flavor characteristic of cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg and it can be used as an important source of eugenol, its main component (70–80%) [ 2 ]. It is employed in food industry—mainly meat and canning industries—as well as