The molar excess enthalpies of binary mixtures of pyridine with C6–C9n-alkanes have been measured at 313.15 K in the entire composition range. The measuredHE values were compared with those calculated by means of the Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory and by the ERAS method.
Authors:V. Elia, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli, L. Nonatelli, A. Ramaglia, and E. Ventimiglia
The 'extremely diluted solutions', anomalous solutions prepared through the iteration of a process of dilution and succussion,
have been studied with the aim of obtaining information about the influence of the preparation method on the water structure
of the solutions. We measured the heats of mixing of basic solutions with such 'extremely diluted solutions', and their electrical
conductivity, comparing with the analogous heats of mixing, electrical conductivity of the solvent. We found some relevant
exothermic excess heats of mixing, and higher conductivity than those of the untreated solvent. The heats of mixing and electrical
conductivity show a good correlation, underlining a single cause for the behaviour of the extremely diluted solutions.
An extensive thermodynamic study has been carried out on aqueous solutions, obtained through the iteration of two processes:
a dilution 1:100 in mass and a succussion. The iteration is repeated until extreme dilutions are reached (less than 1⋅10–5 mol kg–1 ) to the point that we may call the resulting solution an 'extremely diluted solution'. We conducted a calorimetric study,
at 25C, of the interaction of those solutions with acids or bases. Namely, we measured the heats of mixing of acid or basic
solutions with bidistilled water and compared them with the analogous heats of mixing obtained using the 'extremely diluted
solutions'. Despite the extreme dilution of the latter solutions, we found a relevant exothermic excess heat of mixing, excess
with respects to the corresponding heat of mixing with the untreated solvent. Such an excess has been found in about the totality
of measurements, and of a magnitude being well beyond one that could arise any issue of sensibility of the instrumental apparatus.
Here we thus show that successive dilutions and succussions can permanently alter the physico-chemical properties of the solvent
water. The nature of the phenomena here described still remains unexplained, nevertheless some significant experimental results
An extensive study has been carried out on extremely diluted aqueous solutions (EDS). These solutions revealed a really intriguing
physico-chemical behaviour, characterized by multiple independent variables. Because of their behaviour, EDS can be described
as far-from-equilibrium systems, capable of self-organization as a consequence of little perturbations.
In this paper we investigate the stability of the calorimetric behaviour of EDS with a high ionic force, due to the presence
of the sodium chloride electrolyte. We measured the excess heats of mixing of EDS with basic solutions, both with and without
a high concentration of NaCl, and compared the results. In particular, we explored these concentrations: 0.5 and 1Mmol kg−1). The analysis of the experimental results shows that the calorimetric response of the EDS is stable when they are in a concentrated
solution of NaCl. That is of great relevance for the eventual pharmacological action of these solutions, since it involves
the interaction with fluids of complex chemical composition and high concentration.
The extremely diluted solutions are anomalous solutions obtained through the iteration of two processes: a dilution 1:100
in mass and a succussion. The iteration is repeated until extreme dilutions are reached (less than 110-5mol kg-1) to the point that we may call the resulting solution an extremely diluted solution, namely the composition of the solution
is identical to that of the solvent used (e.g. twice distilled water). We conducted thermodynamic and transport measurements
of the solutions and of the interaction of those solutions with acids or bases. The purpose of this study is to obtain information
about the influence of successive dilutions and succussions on the water structure of the solutions under study. We measured
the heats of mixing of acid or basic solutions with such extremely diluted solutions, their electrical conductivity and pH,
comparing with the analogous heats of mixing, electrical conductivity and pH of the solvent. We found some relevant exothermic
excess heats of mixing, higher electrical conductivity and pH than those of the untreated solvent. The measurements show a
good correlation between independent physico-chemical parameters. Care was taken to take into account the effect of chemical
impurities deriving from the glass containers. Here we thus show that successive dilutions and succussions can permanently
alter the physico-chemical properties of the water solvent. The nature of the phenomena here described still remains unexplained,
nevertheless some significant experimental results were obtained.
Authors:G. Giannini, F. Cuppo, L. Fontanive, N. D'Amelio, A. Cesàro, A. Maiocchi, and F. Uggeri
Figure 5 shows heat of dilution data plotted against the concentration of iomeprol and reports data of iopamidol and iomeprol at 25 °C already calculated. The linearity of plot of Fig. 5 suggests that the excessheatofmixing ( h ij in the notation