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To be born into exile

Kelemen Mikes and the 19–20th century Hungarian literary exiles

Hungarian Studies
Author: Sándor Hites

The paper deals with the roles the literary and political legacy of Kelemen Mikes (1690–1761) and his Letters from Turkey have come to play in Hungarian literary emigration. Unlike Mikes’s 19th century cult, which interiorized exilic experience inasmuch as it provided an allegory for domestic political claims, in the 20th century the consecutive exilic waves (1944–45, 1947–48, 1956) increasingly identified Mikes with a peculiar exilic consciousness, which they felt to mirror their own in various ways. Accordingly, the figure of Mikes was designed, mainly in essay and in poetry, to represent and reinforce a wide range of diverse political and literary self-images, from nationalism to apolitical aesthetic modernism, from the experience of the Hungarian writer as a castaway to that of genuine human foreignness.

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The internationally recognized Hungarian playwright Ferenc Molnár settled over to the United States in 1940, well beyond the top of his career. He was an essentially Hungarian, more precisely metropolitan author, with accents from Pest, famour for his ingeniously Hungarian sense of humour. Yet he became the most frequently translated Hungarian playwright of his era, with immense and immediate international success. Practically, Molnár did not live in Hungary from the beginning of the Horthy era (1920–1944), but the Jewish-Hungarian author decided to leave Europe well after Hitler’s takeover only. His name was known even in the United States: his first really successful play, The Devil was staged in New York in 1908, a year after being first performed in Budapest. Several of his plays had a phenomenal success story in the 1920s, his The Play is the Thing had its world premiere in New York in 1926. Carousel, the “Best Musical of the 20th Century”, by Rodgers and Hammerstein, was based on Molnár’s 1909 play Liliom.This article aims at reconstructing Molnár’s overseas network and recreating the spirit and growing loneliness of immigrants. It also tries to answer the question of how the work of an author so deeply embedded in Hungarian language and culture could be translated and adapted to foreign languages.

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Abstract  

This essay discusses how exilic narration is used to explore personal and communal experience by Syl Cheney-Coker in Concerto for an Exile. It also focuses on how an autobiographer becomes a representative construct of a community in the process of telling personal tales as could be seen in the exposition of displacement orchestrated by colonial and postcolonial tendencies in Sierra-Leone. The poet juxtaposes the historical template of Sierra-Leone and his exilic experience to place on record the moral, cultural, political and economic consequences of colonial domination. The essay maintains that there is a noticeable symbiotic relationship between a writer and the site of his/her artistic production and that exilic narration privileges the autobiographical mode as it draws from personal experience to accentuate the collective interest of a community.

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By analyzing enunciation in performance, this article shows the similarities among funeral laments, epic songs, exile songs and the playing of the duduk (oboe). Regarded as “words on” (kilamê ser), these four types of enunciation share melodic, metric, gestural and emotional elements. According to local typologies, the “words on” are opposed to songs (stran), a term referring mostly to wedding music and the zurna (oboe). The opposition between word and song is also related to a series of antinomic couples, such as exile vs. household, sadness vs. joy, or duduk vs. zurna. An analysis of these music and enunciation typologies of emotion allows an approach to Yezidi ritual and calendar time.

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Abstract  

The author analyses two volumes of verse of Catherine Acholonu, a contemporary Nigerian poet: Nigeria in the Year 1999 and The Spring's Last Drop from two aspects. The first main aspect of the poems she examines is the feeling of exile, being outcast from the homeland. "The texts diagnose some of Nigeria's current socioeconomic and political problems which can apply to the experience of other Africans as well." The second part of her analysis highlights violences suffered by women in the war and in the social life. The author discusses the situation of being a woman under double oppression. The conclusion is: "Acholonu clarifies the nature of the disharmony hurting contemporary society."

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This paper attempts to evaluate the historical anthropological process of self-fashioning performed by count Miklós Bethlen. In doing so, the aim of my interpretation is to delineate those cultural and historical contexts that influenced Bethlen’s habit of constituting and fashioning a self in his ego-documents. Taking as a point of departure Bethlen’s twofold liminality, I argue that he identified himself with the prototype of the early modern Calvinist martyr, so that he could provide an account of his life imitating the so called récit martyrologique as a narrative genre. Bethlen’s self-fashioning displayed in his memoirs, letters and political projects, reveals his special commitment to Puritan theology and devotional culture as well.

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Béla Balázs, the librettist of Béla Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle and Wooden Prince, wrote many remarks about Bartók in his recollections throughout his life, and their manuscripts are preserved in Budapest, in the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and National Széchényi Library. Some parts of these texts, however, still remain unpublished. Even though his reminiscence tends to exaggerate their friendship, which in fact ended in their earliest period in Budapest, examination of the sources provides us with a new understanding of the relationship between the librettist and the composer. Therefore, this paper introduces the documents written by Balázs, gives a selective overview of their friendship, and examines how the image of Bartók changed in Balázs’s mind over time.

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, 1985); Thomas Kabdebo, Diplomat in Exile, Francis Pulszky's Political Activities in England, 1849-1860 (New York, 1979); Tibor Tóth Somlyói, Diplomácia és emigráció "Kossuthiana" [Diplomacy and emigration "Kossuthiana"]. (Budapest, 1985). For a

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The Erxadieis inscription

SEG xxvi 461; Meiggs-Lewis, 1988 reissue, 67 bis; Nomima i 55

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: P. Rhodes

This inscription recording an unequal alliance between the Spartans and the Erxadieis has been given dates ranging over almost the whole of the Peloponnesian League’s existence: recent arguments for a late date on the grounds of the formulations used are not cogent; the “exiles” mentioned are probably the Messenians settled at Naupactus between c. 455 and c. 400, and the lettering favours either c. 450 or c. 426.

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