We use pressure-variable differential scanning calorimetry to detect and characterize thermally induced transitions (glass, melting, gelatinization) in pre- and post-extruded wheat flour. The resulting data allow us to construct a two-dimensional state diagram which maps the physical states that pre- and post-extruded wheat flour can assume, at constant pressure, as a function of moisture content, temperature, and the specific mechanical energy, SME, generated in the extruder. We describe how this state diagram can be used to map the path of extrusion processing, to assess the impact of extrusion conditions, and, ultimately, to design formulations and processing conditions that result in desired end-product attributes. For the extrudates, we find that the extent of processing-induced fragmentation, as monitored by reductions in the extrudate glass transition temperature,Tg, increases with the SME generated in the extruder. We demonstrate that a wheat-flour state diagram, which includes the glass curve of the wheat-flour extrudates produced at various SME values, allows one to predict and control the impact of processing conditions on extrudate properties.
Auto-spermatophore extrusion is a kind of spermatophore extrusion without genital coupling in the male cricket. It rarely occurred in intact males paired with a female, while it frequently occurred in all the males with the connectives cut under restraint and dissection. The time interval (SPaSE) between spermatophore preparation and auto-spermatophore extrusion was found to be comparable to that (RS2) of the time-fixed sexually refractory stage measured by the calling song. According to extracellular spike recording, the dorsal pouch motoneuron (mDP), which singly innervates the dorsal pouch muscles and is responsible for spermatophore extrusion, showed a burst discharge in association with auto-spermatophore extrusion with an interval similar to RS2 in males with the connectives transected between the 6th abdominal ganglion and the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) after spermatophore preparation. These results strengthened our previous conclusion that the reproductive timer for RS2 is located in the TAG, and demonstrated that it functions normally even in the TAG separated from the rest of the central nervous system.
then cut into small particles for extrusion process.
The composites were extruded using Shimadzu capillary rheometer model CRT-500 (at three different shear stresses of 9.8, 19.6 and 34.3 kPa and at