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Sunflower (PSH 569) was used to obtain textured defatted meal. Proximate analysis, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), fat absorption capacities (FAC), foaming capacity (FC), and bulk density (BD) were determined. The objective of the study was the optimization of extrusion conditions for production of textured defatted sunflower meal using response surface methodology (RSM) by evaluating functional properties. It was dried, grinded, and sieved to eliminate hull and fibre. Numerical optimization provided eight solutions with desirability value varying from 0.81 to 0.82. Range of predicted values of FAC (80.96–90.49), WHC (1.95–2.12), WSI (3.22–3.36), WAI (2.84–3.08), bulk density (0.31–0.36), and foaming capacity (14.39–16.30) were used for numerical optimization. Best extrusion conditions were 16.36% feed moisture, 300 r.p.m. screw speed, and 149.40 °C barrel temperature. Textured sunflower defatted meal was prepared using the above optimized conditions.

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Single screw extrusion of cassava starch was evaluated as a pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the extrudate and fermentation to yield alcohol. The acid concentration, barrel temperature and moisture content showed that all the variables were significant. Increasing acid concentration or barrel temperature induced starch depolymerisation with a higher water solubility index and lower water absorption index. At 20 and 24% moisture contents the cold paste viscosity decreased. As a result of the addition of acid during extrusion cooking the degree of starch hydrolysis resulted in low hot paste viscosity. Acid concentration was significant in the production of reducing sugars. At concentrations above 0.024 N, as the temperature increased, the reducing sugar content also increased. Nevertheless, at concentrations below 0.024 N, the reducing sugar content showed the opposite result. The best yield of alcohol obtained from the extruded starch was 98.7% (0.56 g of ethanol/g starch), which, on average, was 5.7% and 6.8% higher than that obtained from starch extruded without acid and from starch gelatinized by the conventional method, respectively.

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Devries, A.P. 1973. Some Aspects of Cross-Pollination in Wheat ( Triticum-aestivum L). 2. Anther Extrusion and Ear and Plant Flowering Pattern and Duration. Euphytica 22 :445–456. Devries A

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Construction of a wheat-flour state diagram

Application to extrusion processing

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Kaletunç and K. J. Breslauer

We use pressure-variable differential scanning calorimetry to detect and characterize thermally induced transitions (glass, melting, gelatinization) in pre- and post-extruded wheat flour. The resulting data allow us to construct a two-dimensional state diagram which maps the physical states that pre- and post-extruded wheat flour can assume, at constant pressure, as a function of moisture content, temperature, and the specific mechanical energy, SME, generated in the extruder. We describe how this state diagram can be used to map the path of extrusion processing, to assess the impact of extrusion conditions, and, ultimately, to design formulations and processing conditions that result in desired end-product attributes. For the extrudates, we find that the extent of processing-induced fragmentation, as monitored by reductions in the extrudate glass transition temperature,T g, increases with the SME generated in the extruder. We demonstrate that a wheat-flour state diagram, which includes the glass curve of the wheat-flour extrudates produced at various SME values, allows one to predict and control the impact of processing conditions on extrudate properties.

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Auto-spermatophore extrusion is a kind of spermatophore extrusion without genital coupling in the male cricket. It rarely occurred in intact males paired with a female, while it frequently occurred in all the males with the connectives cut under restraint and dissection. The time interval (SPaSE) between spermatophore preparation and auto-spermatophore extrusion was found to be comparable to that (RS2) of the time-fixed sexually refractory stage measured by the calling song. According to extracellular spike recording, the dorsal pouch motoneuron (mDP), which singly innervates the dorsal pouch muscles and is responsible for spermatophore extrusion, showed a burst discharge in association with auto-spermatophore extrusion with an interval similar to RS2 in males with the connectives transected between the 6th abdominal ganglion and the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) after spermatophore preparation. These results strengthened our previous conclusion that the reproductive timer for RS2 is located in the TAG, and demonstrated that it functions normally even in the TAG separated from the rest of the central nervous system.

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The objective of the study was to determine the effect of grain preparation technology, extrusion cooking conditions, and triticale cultivars on physico-chemical properties of crisp bread. Triticale cultivars used in the experiments differed in protein content, starch content, amylolytic activity, and viscosimetric properties. The type of the twinscrew extruder used has an effect on starch degradation, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activity of the product, but a greater effect on those characteristics is found for grain scouring prior to extrusion. All factors had an effect on volatile compound amounts in crisp bread, but the direction and range of these changes were random in character. Results of this study show that triticale grain can be useful raw material for the production of flat bread.

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The aim of the paper was to seek suitable conditions of extrusion cooking using a laboratory single-screw extruder to increase slowly digestible (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) content in extrudates saving sensory characteristics of the final product prepared from corn grits with added native wheat starch, distarch phosphates, or soluble fibre Nutriose (Roquette, France).

In addition to the composition of input mixtures, process parameters of a single-screw extruder, such as speed of screw and barrel temperatures, were changed. The highest expansion ratio (4.14) was found for temperatures 44 °C, 90 °C, 120 °C, and 140 °C, die diameter 3 mm, compression ratio 3:1, rotation speed 140 r.p.m., and dosing 15 r.p.m. The addition of native wheat starch to corn grits resulted in values of the expansion ratio ranging from 1.17–2.38.

A high concentration of RS — 2.4% per starch — was observed for a 20% ratio of Nutriose with a 10% addition of water. The addition of 20–50% of native wheat starch resulted in values ranging from 0.2–0.4% per starch. The highest SDS content (72.5% per starch) in extrudates was obtained for the mixture of corn grits, 20% cross-linked starch, and water (10% addition).

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An extruded product was made based on oats and dried green pea using central composite rotatable design. Effects of incorporation level of oat flour (OF, 15.86 to 44.14%) and dried green pea flour (DGPF, 7.93 to 22.07%) on the physical and functional characteristics of extruded products based on composite flour were studied using response surface methodology. Second order polynomial equation was used to describe the effect of OF and DGPF on lateral expansion (LE), bulk density (BD), water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI), and hardness (HD). Results indicated that OF had negative effect on LE, while positive effect on BD, WSI, WAI, and HD. On increasing DGPF, LE and WSI increased, but it had negative effect on BD, WAI, and HD. Numerical optimization resulted in 41.91% OF and 7.93% DGPF to produce acceptable extrudates. The results suggest that oats and dried green pea flour can be extruded with rice flour and corn flour into an acceptable snack food.

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. Mitrus , A. Wójtowicz , Extrusion technique in the agro-food industry , PWRiL , Warszawa , 2007 (in Polish). [4] A. Wójtowicz , L. Mościcki

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then cut into small particles for extrusion process. Testing The composites were extruded using Shimadzu capillary rheometer model CRT-500 (at three different shear stresses of 9.8, 19.6 and 34.3 kPa and at

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