The distinction between aesthetic and commercial value emerged in the later eighteenth century under the conditions of an emerging market for literature and music. Such a distinction was sharply pronounced in North German debate on music, especially concerning the “elitist” fantasia and the “populist” rondo. While Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach would pay lip service to the sharp reprobation of Forkel or Reichardt concerning commercialisation of music, he would nonetheless act as a businessman when it came to selling his music. Joseph Haydn and his Austrian contemporaries, on the other hand, seem to have had much less reservations concerning the idea of music as commodity; indeed, one could argue that Haydn consciously used his trade-marks like “originality” or “wit and humour” as a kind of branding. Commercial success, after all, allowed a composer to get a response from an otherwise anonymous and silent public. The issues at stake are exemplified by a comparison of two important piano pieces which combine elements of fantasia and rondo form: C. P. E. Bach’s Fantasia in C major, H. 291/Wq. 61,6, and Haydn’s Fantasia in C major, Hob. XVII:4.
Two separate publications of C. P. E. Bach’s keyboard works appeared during the 19th century in the edition of Hans von Bülow: Sechs Sonaten (Leipzig, Peters, 1862), and the ‘Concertvortrag’ version of a rondo movement in the Anthologie Classique (Berlin, Schlesinger, 1860). Both editions alter the original text heavily, by dressing it up in the raiment of the flamboyant and virtuosic style of their own time. The long Preface to the Sechs Sonaten, in which Bülow explains the necessity of a ‘revision’, but, at the same time, betrays his uneasiness about his procedures, is an extremely important document of the historical/artistic thinking of Bülow’s generation.Bülow’s revisions are examined in the following aspects of the music: enrichment of the keyboard texture; change of harmony; obliteration of the fantasia character; performance indications and tempo changes; abolishment of the aposiopesis. Differences between the original and the revised text are illustrated with several musical examples.Although Bülow was a true son of the nineteenth century, his attitude to textual fidelity was stricter than that of his colleagues. His troubled conscience about the revision of the C. P. E. Bach sonatas shows a fundamentally ethical principle, independent from the artistic disposition of his age.
-A-C-H” (B-flat–A–C–B-natural) was well known from works prior to his quartet. He certainly knew Liszt’s Fantasy and Fugue on the Theme B-A-C-H , presumably also Schumann’s Sechs Fugen über den Namen Bach , and Reger’s Fantasia and Fugue on B-A-C-H for
The study revisits Haydn’s Erdődy Quartets with the premise that it was Haydn’s intention to copy the scores of three of the six — in D minor, B-flat and E-flat — as
for his own library, and there is no reason to assume that such scores of the other three once existed. While the compositional
tour de force
in the D minor is the opening movement, the slow movements of the B-flat and E-flat form a carefully crafted pair of compositional essays (although they exhibit other special features, such as the E-flat’s
renditions of different lengths). From the same motivic starting point, both in 3/4 time, the E-flat Adagio of the B-flat major quartet and the B major
of the E-flat quartet present diametrically opposed strategies of the learned style. The focus in the
is on the meter, pulsation, and rhythm (including subtleties such as
per arsin et thesin
entries), while in the oft-analysed
it is on the modulation and the surprising shifts of key.
The history of the genre of the sonata written for violoncello and pianoforte begins in 1796 with the five sonatas by Beethoven opp. 5, 69 and 102. The sonata op. 69 is a model for its special role until the 20th century: the lyrical character of the opening theme with a fantasy-like closing solo-cadenza and a fermata. Since the 1st Sonata of Brahms (1865), it was mostly young composers like Strauss (op. 6), Pfitzner (op. 1), Reger (op. 5) and Dohnányi (op. 8) who followed this tradition. As also the Sonata op. 4 by the young composer Kodály (1909) whose opening Adagio as “Fantasia” has the same conceptions: rhapsodic melody with closing cadenza and a fermata. The final return of the Adagio establishes a cyclic unity. The first performance of the sonata in 1910 with string quartets by Kodály and Bartók founded the beginning of modern music in Hungary. Also the Sonatina, originally the 3rd part of Sonata, published in 1922, has a Lento-introduction with rhapsodic-like parts wich begins a process-like evolution of composition. A relationship with the special features of the Sonata for Cello and Piano in the history of the genre includes also works by Debussy (1915) and Hindemith (1919).