Authors:G. Keller, F. Lavigne, C. Loisel, M. Ollivon, and C. Bourgaux
The thermal behavior of three ural fats (displaying very different composition), cocoa butter (CB)2, lard, and a stearin obtained from anhydrous milk-fat (AMF) fractionation, were studied by both DSC and X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature (XRDT). To perform temperature explorations between −30‡C and +80‡C, at rates identical to those used for DSC and ranging from 0.1 K min−1 to 10 K min−1, a new set of X-ray sample-holders, temperature-controlled by Peltier effect, has been developed. It is shown that the three more stable polymorphic forms of CB were easily characterized by either X-ray diffraction or DSC, and existence of two Β-3L forms was confirmed. On the contrary, the more complex polymorphism of lard and AMF required combined examination by DSC and XRDT and the brightness of the synchrotron source for studies at the highest heating rates. Quantitative analysis of the long spacings of XRDT recordings is invaluable for interpretation of thermal events. For instance, it was found that the simultaneous formation of two polymorphic forms, of apparent long spacing of 34 and 42 å, at the onset of lard crystallization might explain the difficulty of its fractionation.
Authors:Katalin Németh, M. Mézes, T. Gaál, Á. Bartos, K. Balogh, and F. Husvéth
The effect of supplementary methionine and fats of different saturation levels on the glutathione redox system of growing broiler cockerels was studied. The diet of three groups of chicks was supplemented with corn germ oil, beef tallow and fish oil at the levels of 30 g/kg and 50 g/kg of feed, respectively. The diet of further three groups was supplemented with methionine (5 g/kg of feed) in addition to the different fat sources. Control chicks were fed with a compound feed without methionine and fat supplementation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content as well as glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver were determined and GSH/GSSG ratio was calculated at day old and then at one and three weeks of age. Our results indicate that supplementary methionine stimulates both the synthesis of the glutathione redox system and glutathione peroxidase activity in growing chickens in the first period of postnatal life, when the risk of lipid peroxidation is high due to feeding unsaturated fats in the diet.
C hatli , M.K. , G andhi , N. & S ingh , P. ( 2016 ): Efficacy of carboxymethyl cellulose as fat replacer on the processing and storage quality of buffalo mozzarella cheese . J. Animal Res. , 6 ( 3 ), 519 – 530
Authors:E. F. S. M. Ramalho, I. M. G. Santos, A. S. Maia, A. L. Souza, and A. G. Souza
.5 millions of tons, approximately 500,000 tons of poultry fat are usually rejected [ 2 ]. The low commercial value of the poultry fat associated with physicochemical properties appropriated to biodiesel production make of this raw material an excellent option
. Gillum 1987 The association of body fat distribution, hypertension, hypertensive heart disease, coronary heart disease, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women ages 18–79 years J. Chron. Dis. 40 421 – 428 .
. G. A
Authors:Magdalena Wirkowska, Ewa Ostrowska-Ligęza, Agata Górska, and Piotr Koczoń
standard fat content of 26 g per 100 g of milk are usually traded commercially for a variety of dairy and food application end-uses [ 2 ]. The major ingredient in milk powder is lactose [ 3 ]. The presence of other components such as moisture, protein