fat content and fattyacidprofile of the control and experimental feeds are given in Table 4 . Table 4. Comparison of used feeds based on fat content and fatty acid composition Contr. Exp. Total amount of SFAs (as % of total amount of fatty acids
The chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and cholesterol content of milk fat were analysed during the lactation period of thirty Iranian Ghezel sheep. They were fed dry hay for the first three months and then grazed on fresh grass to the end of lactation, along with barley and wheat middling during the whole period. Fatty acid profile analysis showed palmitic acid to be the dominant fatty acid (45.24±1.88%). During lactation C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0 contents decreased, while C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and CLA increased significantly, which can be associated with the change of nutrition from hay to fresh grazing. The cholesterol content of the sheep milk reached 14.88 mg/100 ml milk or 283.43 mg/100 g fat as an average for the whole period of milking. Regression analysis showed a significant increase in cholesterol from 5.42 to 32.87 mg/100 g milk during the lactation period.
Microalgae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for fatty acid production. Since the various fatty acid profiles (chain length, degree of unsaturation, and branching of the chain) of the different sources influence biodiesel fuel properties, it is important to possess data on how the presence of NaNO3 as nitrogen source can influence the profile of produced fatty acids from algae. The fatty acid profiles of Desmodesmus quadricaudatus and Chlorella sp. were detected in pure batch cultures experiments. BG-11 nitrogen free medium and the medium contained 1.5 g NaNO3 l–1 were used in this investigation. At late stationary growth phase in nitrogen free medium, Chlorella sp. produced 58.39% saturated fatty acids and 41.60% unsaturated fatty acids. While in medium contained 1.5 g NaNO3 l–1 Chlorella sp. produced 62.08% saturated fatty acids and 37.92% unsaturated fatty acids. In nitrogen free medium D. quadricaudatus produced 66.92% saturated fatty acids and 33.07% unsaturated fatty acids. While in cultures contained 1.5 g NaNO3 l–1D. quadricaudatus produced 51.62% saturated fatty acids and 48.37% unsaturated fatty acids.
The fatty acid profile of Chlorella sp. and D. quadricaudatus that isolated from Egyptian water body and grown in nitrogen free medium may be suitable for biodiesel production. The results discussed and compared to fatty acid profiles produced by other algal species.
The present study was designed to investigate whether meat-type rabbits are able to perform treadmill running as a daily routine exercise, and if so, whether the exercise induces specific proportional changes in the fatty acid composition of their muscles. After a four-week training period 8-week-old rabbits were slaughtered and the total activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase was measured, showing a significant difference between the exercised and control groups (429 ± 126 IU/l vs. 639 ± 203 IU/l). Furthermore the fatty acid composition of m. longissimus dorsi (MLD) and m. vastus lateralis (MVL) was determined by means of gas chromatography. Exercise increased the proportions of oleic acid (C18:1 n-9) in both MLD and MVL as compared to the control group. However, the level of stearic (C18:0) and arachidonic (C20:4 n-6) acids significantly decreased in the MVL after the exercise. Changes in the fatty acid profile resulting from the physically loaded condition were of the same tendency in both muscles, adding that the MVL might have been exposed to the exercise more intensively; alterations there occurred in a more pronounced manner. Based on the inference that the composition of membrane structure was also affected, these alterations may have important consequences on meat quality.
This paper reports changes in the fatty acid profiles of the hemp seed oil of two breeding populations, Kolaj and Fibrol, after five and seven years of selection for high oil content. While the original variety Kompolti had a 3:1 ratio of linoleic acid to linolenic acid, which has been claimed to be optimal for human nutrition, the selected population of Kolaj (improved Kompolti) shows a ratio close to 4:1.The highest ratio of increase (r.i.) was 1.45, determined for γ-linolenic acid in Fibrol (improved Fibrimon 21-63). Another significant change was the 0.49% (r.i. 1.21) increase in stearic acid in this variety, along with a 3.16% (r.i. 1.1) increase in total oil content. In Kolaj the 5.87% (r.i. 1.2) increase in oil content was accompanied by a 1.76 % (r.i. −1.28) decrease in palmitic acid and by decreases of 2.98% and 0.18% (r.i. −1.15 and −1.16), respectively, in the α- and γ-linolenic acid contents.
This paper aimed to assess the tocopherol content and evaluate the fatty acid profile in soybean oil supplemented with salvia extract during heating, so as to verify the isolated and synergistic effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants. In order to obtain the extract, the lyophilized and crushed salvia was subjected to extraction by ethyl alcohol for 30 min, with a 1:20 salvia:ethyl alcohol ratio, under continuous agitation. Afterwards, the mixture was filtered and the supernatant was subjected to the rotary evaporator at 40 °C. Later the control treatments, ES (3000 mg kg−1 salvia extract), TBHQ (50 mg kg−1), and mixture (ES+50 mg kg−1 TBHQ) were prepared and subjected to 180 °C for 20 h. Samples were taken in time intervals 0, 10, and 20 h and analysed in terms of tocopherol content and fatty acid profile. Regarding the tocopherol and fatty acid profile analysis, it was found that the extract proved efficient in oil protection, when added isolated to soybean oil subjected to thermo oxidation. According to the results, salvia extract is a viable alternative that might be applied in industrialized processing of oils as natural antioxidant.
The aim of present study was to survey the fatty acid composition and fat content in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fillet captured in five different fish farms located in Hungary. Lipid peroxidation characteristics (conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde levels) were also determined in fish muscle. Data on fatty acid composition of common carp has shown that different methods of rearing and feeding cause significant differences in the proportions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of this fish species. According to present results, it seems that the feeding practice of the last month before capture has determined the fatty acid profile of fillet, therefore the technology of carp nutrition should be divided into two main periods: first a growth and weight gain period; and a second one when the nutritional quality of the fillet composition can be improved.
Non-polar lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of the commercial edible strain of Pleurotus ostreatus and the medicinal wild strain of Ganoderma australe were determined. A comparison of the FA profile was conducted between mycelium grown under optimum bioreactor conditions and naturally occurring fruit bodies in both species. Both strains contained unsaturated FA (UFA), amounting to 55–77% of total FA content, whereas the proportion of essential FA was contributive, permitting their consideration as potential food ingredients. Bioreactor process resulted in a significant total FA content increase accompanied with a considerable effect on ratios of nutritional interest (MUFA/SFA, PUFA/SFA, oleic/linoleic).
The fatty acid compositions of the total lipid, neutral and polar lipid fractions in the liver and muscle of Capoeta sieboldii and Capoeta baliki from Tödürge Lake were determined. Major fatty acids found in total lipid (TL) and neutral lipid (NL) in liver and muscles were C16:0, C16:1 n-7, C18:1 n-9, C18:1 n-7, C20:4 n-6, C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3, and C22:6 n-3. Beside these acids, C18:0 was another notable fatty acid in polar lipid (PL) fraction of the tissues investigated. The n-3/n-6 ratio, which is an indicator of health benefits of fish oils, was between 2.89 (PLs of liver) and 5.84 (PLs of muscle) in C. baliki, while it was found between 1.43 (PLs of liver) and 2.52 (NLs of muscle) in C. sieboldii. C. baliki was the excellent species in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in TL (43.92% in muscle) and PLs (52.94% in muscle) and C22:6 n-3 amounts (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA) were responsible for these high percentages. These results suggest that Capoeta species investigated have high nutritive value in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acids for human nutrition.