) account for 98% of HM lipids, and their properties are largely influenced by their fattyacid (FA) composition ( Bobiński and Bobińska, 2020 ). HM contains more than 200 FAs, the majority of FAs are saturated fattyacids (SFA: 48.2%) or monounsaturated
Fish diet has a major impact on the chemical composition of fish tissues and especially on the fattyacid (FA) composition of the fish lipids [ 1 – 4 ]. The FA composition of fish can also be influenced by
In Spain the consumption of bakery products is increasing, while that of bread is decreasing. Baked goods have a high fat and sugar content, and their intake accounts for a high percentage of the food consumed by the population for breakfast, mid-morning and mid-afternoon meals. Twenty products, with and without cream and chocolate, were analysed. The nutrients examined were proteins, fats and fatty acids, carbohydrates, sugars, starch, and fibre. The values for carbohydrates ranged between 36.8% and 62.3%, and for sugars between 9.0% and 33.8%. The fat content ranged from 6.0% to 36.8%, while 76% of the saturated fatty acids (SFA) determined were atherogenic acids. In accordance with daily energy intake recommendations for SFA and sugars, the intake of one serving of the product provides 25% or more of the recommended energy from SFA for nine of the twenty baked goods tested, and more than 15% of the energy recommended from sugars for fourteen of these products.
The shape of DSC curves of non-isothermal oxidation of fats was explained. Two main exothermic effects overlapped partially
are caused by hydroperoxide formation (first peak) and by further oxidation of peroxides (second peak). The oxidation of oils
and lipid analogues of various peroxide concentration showed that only the start of the oxidation process is affected by initial
concentration of peroxides, other temperatures determined from DSC curves are not connected with this parameter. The computer
simulations gave the best agreement of theoretical and experimental data for kinetic scheme of a two-step consecutive reaction
with autocatalytic start. The comparison of activation energies calculated for isothermal and non-isothermal autooxidation
of unsaturated fatty acids and their esters also confirmed this interpretation.
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of three different starter culture combinations and two scalding temperatures on the organic and fatty acid compositions of pasteurized Mihaliç cheeses. For this purpose, starter culture combinations consisting of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris were used. Two scalding temperatures, 40 °C or 45 °C, were used for cheeses with the same culture combination. Samples were evaluated in terms of organic and fatty acid compositions during 90 days of ripening. Eye formation, which is a characteristic feature of Mihaliç cheese, was seen in all cheese samples. Propionic and lactic acids were the most abundant organic acids detected in the cheeses. The most abundant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid, followed by myristic and stearic acids. Oleic acid content was the highest among total unsaturated fatty acids. The control cheese had lower levels of short-chain fatty acids, which contribute directly to the cheese flavour.
The milk thistle plant grows in many regions in Tunisia; however, there is no literature regarding their oil composition. In this study, oil content, fatty acids and triacylglycerols compositions of milk thistle seeds growing wild in Tunisia were determined. The oil content was 30.5%, thus milk thistle seeds could be exploited as natural new source of oil. Among the fatty acids, linoleic acid had the highest percentage (59.98%) followed by oleic acid (21.26%) and palmitic acid (12.74%). The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (60.37%). Various molecular species of TAGs were detected and the major forms were LLL (22.30%), OLL (20.40%), PLL (17.31%), POL (14.30%), and OOL (7.90%). It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic TAG pattern as compared with these elucidated for olive oil and soybean oil.
Palm oil as a rich source of carotene appears to be the only oil of vegetable origin which can serve as a potent source of vitamin A and monounsaturated fatty acids mainly oleic acid. Considering the nutritive value of crude palm oil this study was directed towards blending of CPO with other commonly used cooking vegetable oils to attain ideal fatty acid composition of SFA:MUFA:PUFA (1:2:1). Palm oil was blended with safflower oil and soybean oil in two different proportions, i.e. CPO:safflower oil (65:35 and 70:30) and CPO:soybean oil (55:45 and 65:35). Chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of crude palm oil and its blends were determined. Saponification value was highest in CPO and lowest in safflower oil. No peroxide value was detected in fresh oils. β-Carotene content was 366.19 μg g
in CPO and found absent in safflower and soybean oils. Fat acidity (mg KOH/g) was lowest (0.12) in CPO and highest (0.25) in safflower oil. The fatty acid composition of different oils revealed that palmitic acid was the predominant fatty acid (43.45%) in CPO followed by oleic (40.98%) and linoleic acids (14.67%). However, safflower and soybean oils contained the highest amount of linoleic acid (73.61, 54.22%) followed by oleic (18.23, 22.35%), palmitic (6.27, 11.09%) and stearic acids (1.87, 2.53%), respectively.
The thermal behaviour of human stratum corneum (SC) with various hydration levels was studied using differential thermal analysis DSC within the temperature range of –130 to 120°C. SC containing 20% water, resembling the intact condition, shows thermal transitions at around –20°C (representing water in skin), –10, 40, 70°C (representing skin lipids), 85°C (representing protein-associated lipids) and 100°C (representing skin protein). Dehydration of SC causes the transitions at –20 and 100°C to be invisible. Lipid extraction followed by dehydration eliminates all transitions. Further hydration produces a transition of water at around 0°C with a huge change in enthalpy. The perturbation effects of penetration enhancers fatty acids (FA) and propylene glycol (PG) were studied using DTA on SC after pretreatment with PG alone and FA/PG. The application of PG alone shifted the transitions at 70 and 85°C to lower temperatures. Additionally, the application to dehydrated stratum corneum removes the transitions at –10°C. Saturated fatty acids, e.g. nonanoic and decanoic acids, exert barely noticeable effects on the thermal behaviour of SC suggesting that they easily mix with the skin lipids. Thermal analysis also revealed that the cis-9- and 13-isomers of octadecenoic acid (monounsaturated fatty acids) form a separate domain containing mostly the pure fatty acids within the SC lipids and suppress the lipid transitions at 70/80°C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic and -linolenic acids — form separate domains but do not completely suppress the SC lipid transitions at 70/80°C as monounsaturated acids do. This study suggests different ways of perturbation by various fatty acids.
The objective of this paper is to investigate variability in chemical composition, total fatty acid and cholesterol content in m. longissimus dorsi (MLD) of Mangalitsa, swallow-belly (LM) and white (BM), and Swedish Landrace pigs (SL). Compared to SL, the total fat content has been 14.2% higher in BM, while it has been 10.2% higher in LM. SL fatteners contained significantly less cholesterol in MLD compared to LM and BM (−13.6 and −14.8%, P≤0.05). A higher percentage of SFA (+8.5 and +10.1%, P≤0.05) and PUFA (+8.0 and +9.4%, P≤0.05) has been established in MLD, originating from SL fatteners, compared to both Mangalitsa strains. The total MUFA content was higher in LM and BM than in SL (P≤0.05). A phenotypic correlation between protein content and ashes with water content in MLD has been positive (0.81 and 0.88), while the correlation between water content and total fats has been found to be negative (−0.99). A negative phenotypic correlation between MUFA and SFA, as well as PUFA and MUFA (−0.97 and −0.98) has been established, statistically significant at the level of P≤0.001. A positive phenotypic correlation between PUFA and SFA (0.90), statistically significant at the level of P≤0.001, has been found.
This study considers the effect of wild boar sex (males and females) on fatty acid composition in subcutaneous tissue. All the samples used in the experiment were obtained from the hunters. Wild boar was represented by eight young (1 to 2 years old) individuals hunted during winter (December-January) hunting period in the central part of Lithuania. Males had higher portion of C18:2n-3 and C20:5n-3 (P<0.05) and tended to have higher proportions of C20:4n-6 and C20:2n-6. Also, the n-6/n-3 ratio in subcutaneous lipids of wild males were lower (P<0.05) than those of females. Through the application of two multivariate statistical methods, principal component and cluster analyses, the differences in fatty acid composition between wild boar males and females were identified and chromatographic data were confirmed.