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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors: N. ArikaraVelan, V. Deepak, N. Dhinesh Kumar, G. Muthulingam, S. Vanitha, P. Karthigai Priya, and Sachin Sabariraj

, “ Feasibility study of compost as partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete ,” Mater. Today Proc. , vol. 46 , no. 9 , pp. 3775 – 3778 , 2021 . http://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.02.020 . 10.1016/j.matpr.2021

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Abstract  

In this research, non-isothermal kinetics and feasibility study of medium grade crude oil is studied in the presence of a limestone matrix. Experiments were performed at a heating rate of 10°C min−1, whereas the air flow rate was kept constant at 50 mL min−1 in the temperature range of 20 to 600°C (DSC) and 20 to 900°C (TG). In combustion with air, three distinct reaction regions were identified in all crude oil/limestone mixtures, known as low temperature oxidation (LTO), fuel deposition (FD) and high temperature oxidation (HTO). The activation energy values were in the order of 5–9 kJ mol−1 in LTO region and 189–229 kJ mol−1 in HTO region. It was concluded that the medium grade crude oil field was not feasible for a self-sustained combustion process.

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This paper investigates the minimum oil content necessary for self-sustained combustion, which is introduced as a criterion for the selection of suitable reservoirs for in-situ combustion processes. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the heat values of oil-limestone mixtures. The minimum temperature required for the total consumption of the fuel was obtained by thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). The minimum amount of oil necessary to sustain combustion was calculated from these two parameters and compared with the oil content of the reservoir. Reservoirs with an oil content greater than or equal to this minimum value were considered feasible. It was seen that the fields examined are generally not suitable for in-situ combustion processes.

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The cyclotron production of21Na, via the20Ne(d, n)21Na and the20Ne(3He, pn)21Na and20Ne(3He, 2n)21Mg 21Na nuclear reactions, has been investigated. Transfer of21Na from the production target to the medical application site some 10 m distant was achieved by gas phase and liquid phase systems, both of which are described. Under optimal conditions 111 MBq·ml–1 (3 mCi·ml–1) of21Na were available at the dispensing reservoir 10 m distant from the production target, when irradiating with a 5 A deuteron beam current. Incident deuteron energy was degraded to below 3.0 MeV by a 350 m Al entrance foil, to avoid production of18F. The charge distribution of21Na inside the production target and inside the gas phase transfer tube at distances of 1 m and 15 m were determined, and are reported along with data from similar studies during18F production via the20Ne(d, )18F reaction.21Na accumulated primarily at the cathode, indicating the production of positively charged species, whereas18F was equally distributed between the electrodes in a production target constructed especially for measuring the charge distribution of the radioactive species.

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Sorption of chromium radionuclide has been studied in the pH range of 1–10 on titanium dioxide from aqueous solutions. The adsorption isotherm obtained is of the Freundlich type. The kinetic study of adsorption and desorption of tagged chromate ions at different temperatures show that the adsorption process is exothermic innnature. Further, the feasibility of adsorption process is confirmed by calculating the thermodynamic parameters.

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A conductometric technique for the determination of third phase, a phase formed by splitting of organic phase during malfunction in operation, during reprocessing of fast reactor fuel using a high resolution conductivity monitoring instrument with pulsating sensor developed in-house was tested. Initial studies were carried out in laboratory using uranous salt solutions (U4+) in various synthetic samples containing different aqueous (A) to organic (O) phase ratios (A/O). Results show that there is appreciable increase in conductivity of third phase solution compared to the other organic phase (~100 to ~300 times higher). Such a large change in conductivity in third phase with respect to the other organic phase can be used as a deciding parameter to give first hand information about the occurrence of third phase.

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The technique of photon activation analysis (PAA) is widely employed in many fields as an effective non-invasive tool for measuring elemental compositions and concentrations. In recent years there has been a revival and growing interest of PAA in general and for medical applications in particular. The feasibility of using a PET scanner (Ecat Exact 931) to determine nitrogen concentration in a dead rabbit is described. This method is based on the photon activation of 14N(γ,n)13N (T 1/2 = 9.9 min) using an 18 MV photon beam Medical Linear Accelerator (Varian 2300EX).

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Direct analysis of airborne particulate matter collected on PTFE-membrane filters was performed using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). Standard filter samples prepared in the laboratory were utilized to evaluate the setup performance as well as the capability of the proposed method. The influence of experimental parameters including the beam size and sample-to-detector distance were thoroughly examined. A total of 10 elements on the filter can be determined. It was found that the optimum detection efficiency for the system can be achieved if using a 3 mm´3 mm beam size as well as a 7 cm sample-to-detector distance with a two-step measurement procedure with photon energy less than 7 keV and 14 keV, respectively.

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Abstract  

Methods for the production of radiochemically pure bromine radionuclides were studied. Enriched target material yields were calculated from measurements based on experiments performed with non-enriched target gas. A special target system is to be developed.

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Abstract  

Remote-handled transuranic nuclear waste poses a particular challenge for assaying due to the high neutron and -ray background that emanate from the non-fissile, but highly radioactive material, contained within the waste. The utilization of a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac with a neutron flux of the order of 1010 n/s/4 has shown that, in principle, the differential die-away technique can be used to reliably assay this special class of nuclear waste.

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