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Sacrificing – Feasting – Cursing

Rituals in the Magna Mater Sanctuaries of Kempraten (Switzerland) and Mainz (Germany). An Interdisciplinary Approach

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Pirmin Koch

Summary

During rescue excavations between 2009 and 2013 carried out at the periphery of the vicus at Kempraten (municipality of Rapperswil-Jona, St. Gallen, Switzerland) a Gallo-Roman sanctuary, dating from the second quarter of the 2nd to the end of the 3rd century AD, was unearthed. The excavation included intense sampling for geoarchaeology and archaeobiology, which prompted the Archaeology Department of Canton St. Gall (KASG) to launch an interdisciplinary project. Four curse tablets attest to the cult of Magna Mater in the sanctuary at Kempraten.

This paper presents the first results of the interdisciplinary study and compares them to the Magna Mater sanctuary at Mainz (Germany), focusing on 1. the layout of the sanctuary, 2. sacrificing, 3. feastings and 4. cursing. The comparison between both sites showed that there was no strict setting of rituals in the cult of Magna Mater, but the importance of cursing and of burnt sacrifices is characteristic for both sites. Summing up: The temple precinct at Kempraten had a specific setting, which showed on one hand local and regional influences, for instance in terms of the temple architecture and the choice of food offerings. On the other hand, distinct differences between the Kempraten sanctuary and local Gallo-Roman sanctuaries can be observed, for instance in relation to cursing, the composition and the importance of the burnt offerings.

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–279 Bokova I Брегът — морето — Европа] 2006 Ganeva-Raycheva , Valentina [ГАНЕВА-РАЙЧЕВА, Валентина] 2002: Календарни празници и обичаи [Calendar Feasts and Customs]. In: ПОПОВ

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The traditional ritual year which was characterized by Christian feasts for centuries on one hand, and the cosmological, agrarian (economic), individual, family, and local communal holidays on the other, has been rapidly changing between 1945 and 1956 during the first Socialist/Communist years. A new system of the ritual year was established according to the new ideology and power situation: the so-called Socialist ritual year. It was characterized by international, Soviet and national-communist feasts, refusing the religious holidays. Some softening were introduced only after the 1956 Hungarian revolution. The main Christian feasts were again accepted (Christmas, Easter). This Socialist period with its Socialist feasts lasted for 45 years when in 1989/1990 the legal power system was changed.After the elction in 1990 the totalitarian Socialist ideology with its symbolic holidays has mostly disappeared. New national feasts were created e.g. the memorial day of the 1956 revolution which was a prohibited alternative feast during the Socialist period. Patriotic holidays have regained their importance. The symbols of the feasts have been totally changed. The traditional Christian ritual year has been partly restored, but in a rather secularized society. Christmas, Easter have been commercionalized. Local feasts have emerged which serve first of all the restoration of the civil society and express the local identity.The paper deals with the process of changes in Hungary showing the role of the holidays and the ritual year in society.

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This article focuses on the possible connections which can be established between the Roman goddess Juno as the protector deity of marriages and married women and the rites and rituals associated with the sacred feast of the Lupercalia. The role of other Italic gods associated with these sacred ceremonies is also analyzed, such as the rustic god Faunus, as well as Jupiter, Mars, and Romulus-Quirinus (albeit in secondary roles; for example, the name Luperci given to the young Roman men involved in the ritual flogging of the Roman women of fertile age is linked with lupus, the Latin name of the wolf, animal sacred to the god Mars and forever bound to the Twins Romulus and Remus, the mythical and heroic founders of Rome). The amiculum Iunonis or the garment of Juno is in fact the name given to the ritual objects used by the Luperci in the act of symbolic fecundation of the Roman young women, namely the leather thongs carved out of the skin of a sacrificed goat. The he-goat (Latin hircus) is also connected with the ancient Roman and Latin god Faunus (the Italic divine counterpart of the ancient Greek Πᾶν). As a final acknowledgment, I hereby thank Professor Attilio Mastrocinque who had the idea of this study and whose book revealed to me the hidden links between Juno, Bona Dea, and the feast of the Lupercalia, normally associated with the god of wild nature, Faunus-Pan. I owe also a debt of gratitude to the patience and unremitting help of Professor Patricia Johnston, whose observations greatly improved my conclusions.

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The introduction of new feasts was regularly accompanied by a kind of rearrangement of the liturgical material. In the beginning Transfiguratio Domini was not obligatory feast, but was introduced gradually in more and more churches from the 10th century on. During the greater part of its history it had no special Proper for the mass, but different chants were drawn from the masses of traditional feasts, like Christmas, Epiphany, the Easter season and even the Holy Trinity. In the sources that include at all a mass for Transfiguratio we see different sets of Proper chants, borrowed from different feasts. The status of the feast changed when pope Callixtus III extended the feast to the Universal Church in memory of the victory gained by the Hungarians over the Turks. After that a new Proper was compiled, which, however, was slowly adopted by the different dioceses. It is questionable whether new melodies were also composed or the texts were sung to existing melodies instead. In Hungary the feast understandably gained special importance and apparently there was a need for Proper melodies. Since, however, there were no ordered melodies (or they were not at hand), every scriptor had to compose or find their own version. The paper demonstrates a great variety of solutions through the different melodies set to the Alleluia text Candor est lucis.

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Moniteur, Paris. Guez G. Fêtes du monde. Europe 1980 James , Edwin Oliver 1961: Seasonal Feasts and Festivals . Barnes and Noble Inc., New York

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fordítással [Summary of the Sulchan Aruch with Hungarian translation]. Vol. II: A sabbosz és ünnepek szabályai ()[Rules for the Sabbath and feast days]. Várpalota: Ford. és kiad. Dr. Singer Leó főrabbi. GLESZER, Norbert 2005: “Zsidó

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The paper investigates some open questions concerning the Roman Lupercalia . Within the research it appears that several problems touching the Lupercalia as well as other ceremonies within the Parentalia can be solved in regard to the feasts of the month February as a whole.

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The author of this paper examines what position the most prominent 12th-century Russian ecclesiastic writer and orator, the author of numerous festal speeches and parables, Cyril of Turov takes up on and what aesthetic value he attributes to ecclesiastic feasts. In the paper, it is also studied why he considers it important and “soul-saving” to read and to know sacred books while he also speaks of the psychology of reading.

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The lion dance is one of the most popular momentum of kagura ceremonies and folk feasts, the matsuris. It also appears in the ancient tradition of the nô theatre. The cult of the lion spread in China and it must have reached Korea and Japan by the transmission of Buddhist mythology. It was not only religion that had an intermediary role, but the practice of court music. The characteristics and musical structure of the folk or kagura variety of the lion dance are presented and analyzed.

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