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The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A
An evolutionary approach to social cognition yields novel hypotheses about the perception of people belonging to specific kinds of social categories. These implications are illustrated by empirical results linking the perceived threat of physical injury to stereotypical impressions of outgroups. We review a set of studies revealing several ways in which threat-connoting cues influence perceptions of ethnic outgroups and the individuals who belong to those outgroups. We also present new results that suggest additional implications of evolved danger-avoidance mechanisms on interpersonal communication and the persistence of cultural-level stereotypes about ethnic outgroups. The conceptual utility of an evolutionary approach is further illustrated by a parallel line of research linking the threat of disease to additional kinds of social perceptions and behaviors. Evolved danger-avoidance mechanisms appear to contribute in diverse ways to individual-level cognitive processes, as well as to culturally-shared collective beliefs.
Women demonstrate stronger preferences for femininity when assessing men's attractiveness for long-term rather than short-term relationships. One explanation of this effect is that the pro-social traits associated with femininity are particularly important for long-term relationships. This explanation has recently been challenged, however, following null findings for effects of pro-social attributions on women's preferences for feminine long-term partners. A limitation of these latter analyses is that they did not consider hormonal contraceptive use, which is a factor that previous studies suggest affects mate preferences. In our study, we found that women not using hormonal contraceptives demonstrated stronger preferences for femininity in men's faces when assessing men as long-term partners than when assessing men as short-term partners. Moreover, this effect was most pronounced among women who perceived feminine men as particularly trustworthy. No equivalent effects were observed among women using hormonal contraceptives. These findings support the proposal that the effect of relationship context on women's face preferences occurs, at least in part, because women value pro-social traits more in long-term than short-term partners. Additionally, our findings suggest that both hormonal contraceptive use and individual differences in perceptions of pro-social traits modulate the effect of relationship context on women's face preferences.
The aim of this paper is to report on an experiment designed to evaluate the perception of high frequency sibilant articulations in Hungarian male speech and to theorise on the results. The main findings of the experiment are that the Hungarian listeners rate high frequency sibilants with femininity. These findings suggest that there is at least some social awareness of sibilant frequency in Hungarian. What follows from this is, in turn, that the sociolinguistic salience of sibilants as a variable is not confined to dialects of English, where the phenomenon has been most thoroughly described and discussed.
Adolescents have been found to differ by age in their attraction to facial symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism. However, it has not been demonstrated that attraction to these facial characters changes over time as a consequence of age-linked development. We aimed to extend previous cross-sectional findings by examining whether facial attractiveness judgments change over time during adolescence as a consequence of increasing age, in a within-subjects study of two cohorts of adolescents aged 11–16. Consistent with previous findings, we find that adolescents (often particularly females) judged faces with increased averageness, symmetry and femininity to be more attractive than original, asymmetric and masculine faces, respectively. However, we do not find longitudinal changes in face preference judgments across the course of a year, leading us to question the extent to which some of the previously reported differences in facial attractiveness judgments between younger and older adolescents were due to age-linked changes.
A tanulmány mélyinterjús technikával készült empirikus kutatásról számol be, amely húsz fiatal értelmiségi nő életútján keresztül igyekszik elemezni a nemekkel és nőiséggel kapcsolatos társadalmi elvárásokat és személyes tapasztalatokat. A kutatás hátteréül szolgáló szociális konstrukciós elmélet lehetővé teszi, hogy a biológiai különbségek tárgyalásán túllépve, a nőiség fogalmát a testbe, társadalomba és személyes élményekbe ágyazottan értelmezzük. Az interjúk tartalomelemzése során kiderül, hogy a női szerepekkel kapcsolatos ellentmondásos elvárások közül a csoport tagjainak egy része az egalitáriánus, míg mások a konzervatív szemlélettel azonosulnak, illetve megismerjük, hogy a kiválasztott értékrend harmonikusan vagy konfliktusosan épül-e be az életútba. Az így keletkezett négy csoport jellemzése annak megértéséhez igyekszik hozzájárulni, hogy jelen társadalmi változások milyen hatást gyakorolnak a személyes életutakra a nemi szerepek terén.The article summarizes the results of an empirical study conducted using the method of indepth interviews. Social expectations, as well as personal experiences of gender and femininity are analysed based on the life-routes of twenty young women. Social constructionist theories, providing the theoretical background of the study, enable us to understand the concept of femininity beyond biological differences, as it is embedded in the body, society, and personal experiences. From the content analysis of the interviews we see that part of the group identifies with an egalitarian viewpoint, while others identify with a conservative one in the context of the contradictory social expectations toward gender roles. Furthermore, we can perceive whether the chosen value system in incorporated in a harmonious or conflituous way into the life-route. The characterisation of the four groups that were gained as a result of the categorisation contributes to the understanding of the effects of societal changes on personal lives in the area of gender roles.